Table of contents

Kalos: What is to be done with our World.
By Alfred de Grazia


PART EIGHT: World Order


A plan for revolutionary change is full of risks. A plan for a world order to follow has to incorporate these risks and add risks of its own. Yet the Kalotic Revolution must drive towards world government. Otherwise intense emotions will be discharged into existing institutions already guaranteed to be unfit, and revolutionary successes will degenerate into squabbling over designs. Wherever one looks, one sees designs for world government executed in detail by persons who have not the slightest notion of how the world will arrive at the point of taking up residency in their dream house.1 On the other side, one sees persons who are convincingly tearful over man's prospects, but who are political onanists that spill their seed upon the ground. These reasons for planning the cosmarchy should be sufficiently persuasive.

The revolution must culminate in a structure that will continuously fulfill its goals. This has been elaborated in the area of toparchy. In the cosmarchy, the same goals also point naturally to the institutions of representative government, in which the principles of dikeos are directly advanced and the principles of emos and pneumos are implied.

World Congress

The general structure for the continuous revolution is depicted in the chart on page 463. The pinnacle of the representative structure of cosmocracy is to be a World Congress (I). Congress chooses a Principal Coordinator (2) (or President) and five General Coordinators (4) (or Vice-Presidents). The salient features of the World Congress are six in number.

Chart 1



Congress is a unicameral assembly of 500 members, serving for three years. This number is the largest that can provide some immediate contact among the diversity of interests that are to be represented in Congress. It is too large to operate without a strong committee structure (3), and strong committees bolster the power and expertness of an assembly in dealing with the other branches of government and the outside world.

A strong committee system governs the Congress, assist the Coordinators and controls the administration. Congress elects the Principal and General Coordinators (Presidents and Vice-Presidents).

The Congress receives one fifth, or 100, of its members from each of five major constituent conformations, all relating ultimately to the public of the world: Regional Assemblies (5); Statal Governments (6); World Functional Association Boards (7); Metropolitan Councils (8); Personal Suffrages (II). Every person in the world over sixteen years of age holds five votes, one for each type of representative.

Members of Congress are formally authorized to act as individuals, but, owing to their manner of selection, their degree of independence from instructions by their constituencies will vary widely with the type of constituency. Especially in the early years of Cosmarchy, members will be directly influenced by their constituents in half the cases.

Congress is also the Assembly of the First Region, and acts as such until a Second Region joins the first. At that point it will become the World Congress and create a First Regional Assembly. Each new regional system can be a replica of the world system as diagrammed on page 463.

Congress is to have limited legislative authority of the same type as that possessed by the assemblies formed according to the standards for kalotic toparchies. Its fundamental limitations are the principles of personal and group autonomy. Its more specific limits are the directives of the Revolution and the principles and structural features that emanate from them. These represent the instructions of world society to Congress. Its Charter and every law enacted by Congress have to be rationalized in terms of them, with minority reports whenever over one-third of its membership votes against a proposal.

The checks against abuses of power by Congress are structural; they are incorporated in the system of its election, the procedures of Congress and the modes of execution of the laws. The principles of toparchic government apply to it. Congress is to be the continuing revolutionary body, kept in motion by the continued force and movement of the sub-groups and revolutionary elite, which cannot be deadened. It is to be a dynamic revolutionary equilibrium.


Regionalism is increasingly practiced in the contemporary world.

Of twenty-three regional groupings listed in a recent text, only one-the inter-American system-existed before World War II.... Regionalism has recently been called "a halfway house between the nation-state and a world not ready to become one," "the next big step forward in international cooperation," "the most hopeful event in Asia today," and "the only hope of achieving the viability that is essential [in Aferica]." Even General de Gaulle has said that "it is in keeping with the conditions of our times to create entities more vast than each of the European states." The United States, long a supporter of European regional integration and the "switchboard for most of the regional and joint efforts in the free world" in the early 1950's, has publicly committed itself to support of a Latin American Common Market and has revamped its aid program for Africa to emphasize regional cooperation. In the view of one authority, "regionalism can without exaggeration be termed a cornerstone of American foreign policy."2

The cosmarchy can be formed of ten regions, each finally to contain about 400,000,000 people. The regions can correspond generally to the major culture-areas of the world. They are:

  1] The North American Region
  2] The African Region
  3] The Central South American Region
  4] The European Region
      (excepting the communist states of the East)
  5] The Region of Soviet Socialist Republics
  6] The Greater China Region
  7] The Malayan Region (Southern Asia)
  8] The West Pacific Region
  9] The Greater India Region
10] The Middle Eastern Region (Muslim)

Table 3 groups the nations of the world into these ten regions.

Two fifths of the members of the regional assemblies are elected by the existing supreme assemblies of the nations within each region. The Regional Association Boards, Regional Metropolitan Councils, and Regional Publics elect the other three fifths of the members to fill a total of 500 seats. The regional assemblies are the supervisors, through coordinators and committees, of numerous regional functional agencies initiating within the region or established by the World Congress. A country that believes its interest is deeply split between two regions and which in itself does not dominate a majority of seats in any one assembly (Italy or Australia, for example) may divide its representation between two regional assemblies.

The election by the states to their regional assembly and by the regional assemblies to the World Congress will be conducted according to the principle of the limited vote. Each state and member casting a ballot will find his vote for a candidate or candidates limited to the proportion the number of inhabitants in his country bears to the total population of the region and the world, and then divided by the number of candidates he chooses to vote for. Thus the equal-population constituency principle is perpetuated throughout the structure.

1. Source: B. M. Russett, J. Singer, and Melvin Small, "National Political Units in the Twentieth Century," LXII American Political Science Review (1969), pp. 932, 935 ff.

All countries listed are designated as independent except those with the designation (NS) - non-sovereign: Mozambique, Angola, Rhodesia, Hong Kong, Sikkim.

Primary Secondary
D = Dystrocratic 68 50
S = Stratocratic 26 4
T = Taxocratic 24 10
P = Plutocratic 46 9
Total 164

Strong secondary influences are indicated by a double letter, e.g. D-S, ratings, in many cases, are merely suggestive and are subject to continuous revision.

3. Source: U.N.Demographic Yearbook, 1967. Midyear 1967 estimates. All population figures for independent countries include the population of their colonies or trust territories.

4. Source: Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Statistical Office of the UN, Yearbook of National Accounts Statistics 1967 (United Nations, 1968), pp. 832-836, Table 7c. For Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, and Rumania, Poland the figures were taken from: Soviet Economic Performance 1966-67 (U.S Government Printing Office: Joint Economic Committee, U.S.Congress, 1968), Chapt. 13, p. 119.

5. Source: Compendium of Social Statistics: 1967 (U.N. Publication 67, XVII. 9, 1968). Parentheses indicate percentage based on census figures prior to 1960.

* Based upon The New York Times Almanac, 1972.

6. Source: Bruce M. Russett and Hayward R. Alker, Jr., Karl W. Deutsch, Harold D. Lasswell, World Handbook of Political and Social Indicators (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1964).

7. The calculation of GNP per capita for China comes to such a ridiculously low figure that it had best be omitted, and an additional warning sounded regarding all absolute calculations and comparisons of GNP. (Cf. Chen, infra., pp. 138, 140). Percentage urban given for China as a whole in Nai-Ruenn Chen, Chinese Economic Statistics (Chicago: Aldine, 1967).

8. Source: "Political Development in the Indian States," Myron Weiner, in State Politics in India, Myron Weiner, ed. (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1968), pp. 4, 11. From Weiner are taken the names of the Indian states and their population. The figures for GNP were given in Weiner as per capita income in rupees; the author has converted the per capita income into U.S. dollars at the rate of 4.75 rupees equals one dollar.

The Region will especially represent, besides anything it chooses to represent, the cultural and geo-political interests of the world. It is partially national in its orientation, since it is built upon statal foundations and concentrates group of statal interests. It is partially egalitarian also, since its seats are based roughly upon equal-population proportions and the nations elect members to it by a limited vote based on population proportions. No nation should dominate completely its region, but within every region should be created a genuine federation of two or more entities, even though disproportionate in size. This rule should apply especially to the Soviet Union, whose satellites should be independent within the region, and to the vast Chinese culture-area, that should supply six entities to the cosmarchy, three and parts of two others within the Greater China Region, and one within the Western Pacific Region. The Greater India Region too should contain several autonomous nations, based on linguistic, geographic, and cultural divisions of the sub-continent. In effect, a strengthening of the existing federal conception would entail.

Any region logically can be the first to organize for the new cosmarchy. Given the present situation of world politics where the giant taxocracies and plutocracies operate largely by the brandishing of weapons, it is practical to begin with a great power. For reasons set forth above and below, this power is likely to be a kalotically ruled United States.3

The first, nuclear, basic region can consist therefore of the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Korea, "Nationalist" China, Japan, England, Spain, West Germany and Turkey. This group of nations, which faces two large potential regions, China and the U.S.S.R., also fronts upon the dystrocracies of Central-South America, Africa, the Middle East, and the Malayan region.

It contains too many nations for one region. However, as soon as possible, the states within this system that are to belong to other regions will help to establish them. Thus South Korea, Japan, and Nationalist, China will commence their regional government; England, Spain, and West Germany will help set up the European Region; Turkey will begin the experience of Middle East regionalism. Other countries may be substituted for the designated ones, if conditions at the moment of organizing the First Region so require.

The First Region would elect its Congress, which would lay the groundwork for admitting new regions. A Principal Coordinator and his several Associates would be elected. The 15 World Association Boards, which would one day become 15 Local Functional Boards in the larger megarchy, would be set up. Ten World Metropolitan Councils would be organized among the cities of the Region. Kalotic policies for the entire Region would be promulgated.

With the adherence of a Second Region, the Congress of the First Region would become the World Congress. This it would accomplish by three actions; the reduction of all of its memberships (the incumbents of all posts in the chart [nos. 1-19]) in proportions adequate to receive the Second Region members; the incorporation of Second Region officers into the vacated places; reassignment of vacating officers of the First Region to their equivalent posts in the new First Region government. The remaining vacancies in the new First Region and the posts of the Second Region government would be filled by the prescribed election processes.

Upon the formation of the cosmarchy, any nation may adhere to the world government and a region as an Associate Member until its proper region is organized. Greater China, Greater India, and the Soviet Socialist Republics may set up their own independent national entities and thereupon join in the World Government. It should be a rule of the World Government that no member nation of any region should contain over 7% of the world's people (approximately 250 millions in the near future).

Of the several types of constituencies necessitated in the cosmarchy and its regions, the most obvious type at present is the Statal Constituency, which corresponds to the familiar nation-state. There are actually about 150 national entities; many lack a self-identity;4 half of them are small mini-states. Therefore, the smallest states are grouped together or with adjoining larger states into Multi-Statal Constituencies, each with one vote. They may also entrust their representation to a larger state outside of their seemingly appropriate region. If adjustments in representation are needed to maintain the membership at 100, additional small states can be grouped.

There will be a great variation in the willingness with which individual nations approach world government. In some states, small and larger, the notion of nationalism grips peoples' minds tenaciously. Other states will see nothing but good in new arrangements. The actual sacrifice of authority and power to the cosmarchy will be conditioned in some cases by necessity, such as economic dependency, potential disaster, or defeat. In other cases, adherence will follow the realization that a nation can control to some degree the new region and world government and avoid the sense or fact of solitary weakness; they may be impressed by the positive qualities of the Kalotic Revolution; they may embrace the new system out of disbelief in the present great powers in the international sphere. Nations may also accept the cosmarchy without question, as a normal and reasonable procedure at this stage of history. Obviously the universality and compelling quality of propaganda on behalf of kalotic cosmarchy will play a larger part in each national decision. Agitation and organization for the purpose is the task of the revolutionary movement.

Toparchies that are not eligible for membership because of failure to incorporate internally the kalotic principles of the World Constitution should not be admitted, even if willing to join. Their structures and societies should be charged by agitation and propaganda until they are capable of appropriate reorganization. Membership is to be considered compulsory in principle, for what nation, big or small, can rightfully say, "We are not members of the world order." But for those who say "We are members of a world order but not of the World Government," the practical determination of whether membership should be pressed depends upon the kalotic behavior of the independent nation: there should be no derelict precincts outside the limits of World Government, but a fully cooperative state need not join the organization solely to achieve mechanical uniformity.

Functional Constituencies

Already in many respects the functional interests of the world have international ties. The multi-national corporations of the world, that operate in one or more foreign countries, produce in their foreign operations $500 billions of the total world output (GNP) of $1800 billions. This is international coproduction.5

There exist 199 international governmental organizations and 2,134 international non-governmental ones.6 Some writers have hoped that in the trend towards special international bodies dealing with refugees, disaster relief, postal services, shipping, airlines, fisheries, banking, river valleys and many other subjects would be built up a durable basis for world government.7

However, the uncontrolled, more purely political and psychological forces in nations have always been far stronger in crisis, and have demolished readily the many discrete ties. Furthermore, practically all international functional groups catch within their jurisdictions only a small part of a nation's total interest in the same area-in postal services or aviation, for example; hence they are treated in the world arena by their statal agents as only minor appendages of a domestic problem. Nonetheless, if tied into a politically potent structure, functional organization would flourish and contribute increasingly to world solidarity.

To this end one-fifth, or 100, seats in the World Congress and each Regional Congress should be allocated to functional interests. The major interests to be organized for the purpose are the populations engaged in the fifteen categories listed here.

1. Banking, Finance, and Insurance 9. Construction

2. Manufacturing 10. Distribution and Services

3. Communications 11. Health Services

4. Transportation 12. Educational Services
    (includes students over 16)

5. Agriculture 13. Religious Groups

6. Forest Products 14. Mothers and Housewives

7. Fisheries 15. Collected Concerns
    (All others over 16)

8. Mining

The weighting of each interest is defined by the number of people engaged in it and its volume of transactions at the source. (See Chart II). This holds for the allocation of seats in the Congress and in elections to the World Boards. Thus, if its crude petroleum came from Iraqi soil, the total receipts of the Iraqi subsidiary of a foreign company become assignable to that subsidiary for voting purposes along with the number of persons working in the petroleum industry in Iraq.

The basic units of these world-sized constituencies begin to form in the nation-state and proceed outward until there are aggregated fifteen World Association Boards, each with 100 members. The 100 members of each Board are selected by 10 Local Functional Association Boards, each in one of the Regions of the world. The capitals of the World Association Boards are to be located within a radius of 200 miles8 of the longitudinal line of central concentration of the total collected weights to the function.

Everyone in the world has an interest to which he is assigned, or which he chooses if he desires to participate in one role rather than another. Government employees vote in the category with which they are officially concerned; thus, employees of airline authorities vote with the transportation aggregate.

A person first votes for a Local Association Representative from a geographical district. The number of members of each such Local Functional Association Board, of which there are 150 in the world, consists of 100 members, subdivided into the major sub-categories of the major occupation base. Thus, an airline employee will choose among the airline-category nominees for the limited air transportation component of the 100 members of the Transportation Local Functional Association Board for Region 3 (See Chart II).

His Local FA Board will have large powers over functional (transportation) interests in the geographical setting and then will help elect members to the World Association Board. In this election his Board will elect only a fraction of the 100 members of the World Transportation Association Board. The size of the fraction will depend upon the number of voters in his Transportation Region and the value of their product.

Metropolitan Councils

The great cities of the world, taken together with their hinterlands, are an independent representable dimension of the world. Several metropolises within a large country will contain distinct interests and impulses with respect to an international region and the world as a whole. These deserve their own voice. Large cities in this rapidly urbanizing world have a rapidly mounting responsibility for public safety, health services, housing, and education.

Chart 2

Consequently a fifth of the seats in the World Congress are accorded to the world population divided into 100 Metropolitan Community Councils. To accomplish this, the world's population is divided as closely as possible into equal segments centered around one hundred of the largest and densest urban settlements. (Table 4 shows the most likely capitals of the world's Metropolitan Councils.)9 The Councils can be named after their largest city, with the prefix, Kal, as Kal-New York.

(population in thousands)
City Population in 1970 Rank
New York* 16,077 1
Tokyo* 12,199 2
London* 11,544 3
Los Angeles* 9,473 4
Buenos Aires* 9,400 5
Paris* 8,714 6
Shanghai* 8,500 7
Sao Paulo* 8,405 8
Peking* 8,000 9
Calcutta* 7,350 10
Rio de Janeiro* 7,213 11
Chicago* 6,983 12
Essen-Dortmund Duisburg* 6,789 13
Moscow* 6,750 14
Cairo* 5,600 15
Bombay* 5,100 16
Seoul 4,661 17
Tientsin (Tien-ching)* 4,500 18
Djakarta 4,500 19
San Francisco-Oakland* 4,490 20
Detroit* 4,447 21
Philadelphia* 4,355 22
Wu-han* 4,250 23
Hong Kong* 4,105 24
Manila* 4,100 25
Lu-ta (Port Arthur0Dairen)* 4,000 26
Leningrad* 3,850 27
Shen-yand (Mukden)* 3,750 28
Mexico City 3,541 21
Chungking* 3,500 30
Osaka* 3,307 31
Teheran* 3,250 32
Karachi* 3,246 33
Delhi* 3,100 34
Madrid* 2,990 35
Birmingham (U.K)* 2,981 36
Roma* 2,920 37
Harbin (Ha-erh-pin)* 2,750 38
T'ai-yuan, Yu-tz'u* 2,725 39
Sydney* 2,720 40
Washington, D.C.* 2,666 41
Warszawa* 2,664 42
Istanbul* 2,600 43
Madras* 2,600 44
Boston* 2,600 45
Santiago* 2,600 46
Manchester* 2,541 47
Toronto* 2,511 48
Bogota 2,500 49
Lima-Callao* 2,500 50
Montreal* 2,437 51
Athens* 2,425 52
Katowice-Zabreze-Bytom* 2,424 53
Hamburg* 2,407 54
Nagoya* 2,353 55
Yokohama* 2,326 56
Canto (Kuang-chou)* 2,300 57
Cleveland* 2,248 58
West Berlin* 2,240 59
Melbourne* 2,200 60
Taipei* 2,150 61
Caracas 2,147 62
Singapore* 2,113 63
Bangkok* 2,100 64
Alexandria 2,061 65
Budapest 2,060 66
Glasgow* 2,008 67
Nanking* 2,000 68
Ch'eng-tu* 2,000 69
St. Louis* 1,981 70
Pittsburgh* 1,958 71
Leeds-Bradford* 1,945 72
Stuttgartf* 1,935 73
Houston* 1,924 74
Lahore* 1,902 75
Tsingtao* 1,900 76
Sian (Hsi-an)* 1,900 77
Wien (Vienna)* 1,890 78
Barcelona* 1,850 79
Porto Alegre* 1,842 80
Liverpool* 1,823 81
Koln (Cologne)* 1,788 83
Minneapolis-St. Paul* 1,760 84
Tzepo (Tzu-po)* 1,750 85
Milano* 1,750 86
Saigon 1,750 87
Baltimore 1,729 88
Belo Horizonte* 1,728 89
Bucaresti* 1,700 90
Habana* 1,700 91
K'un-ming* 1,700 92
Fu-shun* 1,700 93
Pusan 1,592 94
Mannheim-Ludwigshafen-Heidelberg* 1,578 95
Kiev 1,560 96
Ahmedabad* 1,550 97
Bangalore* 1,550 98
Montevideo 1,530 99
Munich* 1,502 100
*Urban agglomerations

Source : Kingsley Davis, WORLD URBANIZATION 1950-1970. Vol. I: Basic Data for Cities, Countries, and Regions (Berkely, Cal.: U. of Cal. Press, 1969), pp. 239-40.

Each Metropolitan Council contains 100 members, who are elected by popular suffrage in city-centered geographical districts. Each Metropolitan Council elects one member to the World Congress. The Councils perform a number of autonomous functions for the areas and people within their jurisdiction. However, in all of the respects they are subordinate to national states except insofar as a metropolis spreads over more than one country, in which event cooperative devices are used to lend more direction to its development.

Personal constituencies

The final type of constituency of the World Congress and of each regional government is formed directly of persons, all of the world's people, who elect 100 legislators from 100 equal districts. The Public Districts will be large, containing about 40,000,000 persons each. There would be four from the U.S.A., one from each of the larger Western European countries and Brazil, one from a cluster of smaller nations, and so forth. But size does not deprive a constituency of meaning. The elected candidates will bring personal drama into the world arena, hopefully not too much, but enough to allow for the projection of views, aspirations, and traits that are not carried forward by the other devices of representation.

The World Congress apportions Public Seats to the regions, ten on the average. Within each region, they are apportioned by the regional assembly. Election is by majority, through the list system with the single transferable vote. Suffrage is universal after 16 years of age.


The States, World Association Boards, and Metropolitan Councils will legislate on any matter they believe to require adjustment within their jurisdiction. Such legislation will pass for review to the World Congress. Within 45 days the Congress will pass the legislation back to the assembly with approval or will veto it without redress by two-thirds vote, or will pass it to one or both of the other two types of assembly for approval, or amendment and reconciliation of differing views in a special conference of all three assemblies under the chairmanship of a member of the World Congress. If reconciled and repassed by all assemblies concerned, the legislation goes into effect. The total process can be limited to four months.

Executive Structure

The five types of constituencies not only choose the Congress and act themselves (except in the case of the public-at-large) as governing bodies, but they also name the operating heads of the world agencies that fall within their jurisdiction. Thus the Statal agencies remain the business of the state, under a General Coordinator of Statal Affairs; this official is chosen by the Principal Coordinator and Committee on Statal Affairs of the Congress. He is generally responsible for all concerns of the world government respecting the performance of states with regards to tasks assigned them by the Congress. These will have to do with administration, sub-legislation, courts, finance, and statal armed forces, for whose supervision Assistant Coordinators would be appointed.

The regional assemblies will designate their representatives to the World Congress, legislate for their region, and establish such regional agencies as are required for regional business by world or regional law, appointing their operating heads as needed. These regional agencies, too, will be supervised by a General Coordinator charged with regional affairs and his assistants.

Each World Association Board and each World Metropolitan Council will operate similarly: electing to the World Congress, legislating for local boards or metropolitan governments of its area, and designating the rules for the activities of the agencies that it may specially establish. Each again is supervised by its own General Coordinator and his assistants.

The World Congress elects the Principal Coordinator. It is vital that he be chosen indirectly and for a limited term of six years without the possibility of re-election. If he were to be chosen directly and be accountable to the world public and eligible for re-election, he would within a generation become a world despot. He and his successors would be always in considerable danger of being assassinated; they would draw attention and respect away from other functions and bodies.

Nor should the Principal Coordinator perform tasks that are purely ceremonial and expressive; these would be given over to a ten-member Council of High Commissioners, one elected from each regional assembly from a group of four names supplied to each assembly by the World Congress. The High Commissioners would wield little power; they would act as directed by the World Congress. They would hold office at the will of Congress but for not less than the term of a Congress (three years); thus, they could be used express new currents of opinion flowing through the successive Congresses.

The Principal Coordinator concentrates upon executing the kalotic scheme that is detailed by Congress and its Committees. He names the General Coordinators for the five major constituencies into which the people are divided, choosing one person from a list of four persons presented him for each office by the Committee responsible for the particular constituency's affairs. Thus, the Committee of the World Congress on Association Affairs can hand the Principal Coordinator the names of four persons it deems competent for the duties of General Coordinators of Association Affairs, and he can choose one of them who will serve for the duration of his own term.

1 2 3 4 5 6
Name of Country Type of Influence Most pronounced in RegimePopulation (In Thousands)GNP (1963 Per Capita U.S. Dollars)% Urban Adult Literacy (Aged 15 or Over)
United States of America P 203,039 3166 69.9 98.0 1959
Canada P 20,441 2121 69.6 97.5 1950

1 2 3 4 5 6
Name of Country Type of Influence Most pronounced in RegimePopulation (In Thousands)GNP (1963 Per Capita U.S. Dollars)% Urban Adult Literacy (Aged 15 or Over)
Nigeria S-D 61,450 64 16.0 10.0 1952
United Arab Republic S-D 30,907 155 37.8 19.9 1947
Ethiopia D 23,457 49 6.0 2.5 1950
South Africa P-D 18,733 -- 46.7 42.5 1950
Congo (Belgian Congo) D 16,353 188 (22.3) 37.5 1950
Sudan D-S 14,355 104 (8.3) 9.5 1956
Morocco D 14,140 186 29.3 12.5 1950
Algeria T-D 12,540 245 30.7 19.0 1954
Tanzania D 12,173 70 5.0 -- --
Kenya D 9,948 102 7.8 22.5 1950
Ghana T-D 8,143 227 23.1 22.5 1950
Uganda D 7,934 74 (4.8) 27.5 1959
Mozambique (NS) D 7,124 71 -- 1.0 1950
Malagasy D 6,350 106 10.0 33.5 1953
Cameroun D 5,470 120 13.0* 7.0 1952
Angola (NS) D 5,293 71 10.6 2.5 1950
Upper Volta D 5,054 47 3.0* -- --
Tunisia P-T-D 4,560 226 (35.6) 17.5 1950
Rhodesia (NS) D 4,530 223 18.0* -- --
Mali D 4,394 75 11.2 -- --
Malawi D 4,130 41 5.0* -- --
Ivory Coast D 4,010 218 29.0* -- --
Zambi D 3,947 152 19.6 -- --
Guinea D 3,702 99 (8.3) -- --
Senegal D 3,670 213 22.7 -- --
Niger D 3,546 82 2.0* -- --
Rwand D 3,306 40 1.0* -- --
Burundi D 3,340 40 2.2----
Chand D 3,210 66 8.0* -- --
Somalia D 2,660 69 9.0* -- --
Dahomey D 2,505 75 9.9 -- --
Sierra Leone D 2,439 128 10.0* 7.5 1950
Libya S-D 1,738 486 25.0* 13.0 1954
Togo D 1,724 86 9.7 7.5 1950
Central African Republic D 1,459 113 22.3 -- --
Liberia P-D 1,100 186 14.0* 7.5 1950
Mauritania D 1,100 106 6.7 -- --
Lesotho D 885 -- 1.0* -- --
The Congo (French Congo) D 860 188 13.7 -- --
Botswana D 527 -- (26.6) -- --
Gabon D 473 303 17.8 -- --
Gambi D 343 82 8.8 -- --

1 2 3 4 5 6
Name of Country Type of Influence Most pronounced in RegimePopulation (In Thousands)GNP (1963 Per Capita U.S. Dollars)% Urban Adult Literacy (Aged 15 or Over)
Brazial S-D-P 85,655 300 45.1 49.4 1950
Mexico T-P 45.671 386 50.7 50.0 1950
Argentina S-P-T 21.688 566 (62.5) 86.4 1947
Colombia D-P 19.191 309 (38.0) 62.0 1951
Peru S-D 12.385 246 47.4 47.5 1950
Venezuela D-P 9,352 768 67.4 52.2 1950
Chile P 8,935 327 68.2 80.1 1952
Cuba T-D 8.033 -- (57.0) 77.5 1950
Ecuador S-D 5,508 186 36.0 55.7 1950
Guatemala S-D 4.717 287 34.0 29.4 1950
Haiti S-D 4.581 79 (12.2) 10.5 1950
Dominican Republic D 3.889 288 30.3 59.9 1956
Bolivia S-D 3.597 134 (35.0) 32.1 1950
El Salvador S-D 3.151 247 38.5 39.4 1950
Uruguay P-T 2.783 520 82.2 80.9 1950
Honduras S-D 2.445 203 23.2 44.0 1960
Paraguay S-D 2.161 200 35.4 65.8 1950
Jamaica P-D 1.876 446 23.4 77.0 1953
Nicaragua S-D 1.783 303 40.9 38.4 1950
Costa Rica P 1.594 383 34.5 79.4 1950
Panama S-D 1.329 -- 41.5 65.7 1950
Trinidad & Tobago P-D 1.030 624 17.5 73.8 1946
Guyana D 680 263 15.5 74.0 1946
Barbados D 246 414 40.3 91.1 1946

1 2 3 4 5 6
Name of Country Type of Influence Most pronounced in RegimePopulation (In Thousands)GNP (1963 Per Capita U.S. Dollars)% Urban Adult Literacy (Aged 15 or Over)
West Germany P 57,669 1639 79.0* 98.5 1950
United Kingdom P-T 57,577 1601 77.1* 98.5 1950
Itali P-T 52.334 954 47.7 87.5 1950
France P-T 49.890 1676 63.1 96.41946
Spain S-P 33.118 503 56.6 87.0 1960
Netherlands P 13.172 1220 80.0 98.5 1950
Portugal P 10.999 343 22.7 55.9 1950
Belgium P 9.581 1497 66.4 96.7 1947
Greece S-D-P 8.716 554 43.3 80.0 1961
Sweden P-T 7.869 2124 72.8 98.5 1950
Austria P 7.323 1087 50.0 98.5 1950
Switzerland P 6.050 1996 51.3 98.5 1950
Denmark P-T 4.920 1689 74.1 98.5 1950
Finland P 4.664 1408 55.9 98.5 1950
Norway P 3.784 1564 32.1 98.5 1950
Eire P 2.899 810 46.1 98.5 1950
Israel P-T-S 2.669 113 77.9 93.7 1948
Cyprus D 614 618 35.9 60.5 1946
Luxembourg P 355 1698 62.2 96.5 1950
Malta P-D 319 445 (51.5) 57.6 1948
Iceland P 200 1719 45.2 98.5 1950
Monaco P 024 -- -- -- --
Liechtenstein P 020 -- -- -- --
San Marino T 018 -- -- -- --
Andorra P 014 -- -- -- --
Vatican City T 001 -- -- -- --

1 2 3 4 5 6
Name of Country Type of Influence Most pronounced in RegimePopulation (In Thousands)GNP (1963 Per Capita U.S. Dollars)% Urban Adult Literacy (Aged 15 or Over)
U.S.S.R. T 290.526 95.5 1959
Poland T 31.944 906 48.3 95.0 1960
Yugoslavia T 19.958 -- 28.4 77.0 1961
Rumania T 19.281 690 38.2 89.0 1956
East Germany T-P 16.001 1620 (68.8) 98.5 1950
Czechoslovakia T 14.305 1580 47.6 97.5 1950
Hungary T 10.212 1080 39.7 97.0 1960
Bulgaria T 8.309 782 (33.6) 85.0 1956
Albania T-D 1.965 -- 30.9 60.0 1955

1 2 3 4 5 6
Name of Country Type of Influence Most pronounced in RegimePopulation (In Thousands)GNP (1963 Per Capita U.S. Dollars)% Urban Adult Literacy (Aged 15 or Over)
North China T-D 256.000 -- 15747.5 1950
West China T-D 120.000 -- 15747.5 1950
Middle China T-D 210.000 -- 15747.5 1950
Tibet T-D 4.000 -- 15747.5 1950
Centra Asian Republic T-D 20.000 -- 15747.5 1950

1 2 3 4 5 6
Name of Country Type of Influence Most pronounced in RegimePopulation (In Thousands)GNP (1963 Per Capita U.S. Dollars)% Urban Adult Literacy (Aged 15 or Over)
Indonesia S-D 110.100 89 14.9 17.5 1950
Thailand P-D 32.680 115 18.2 68.0 1960
Burma S-D 25,811 66 (10.4) 47.5 1950
Ceylon D11,741 145 14.9 63.0 1946
Malaysia P-D 10,071 275 39.0* -- --
Cambodia S-D 6,415 123 10.5 17.5 1950
Laos S-D 2,770 67 15.0* 17.5 1950
Singapore P-D 1,656 539 (63.1) 50.0 1957

1 2 3 4 5 6
Name of Country Type of Influence Most pronounced in RegimePopulation (In Thousands)GNP (1963 Per Capita U.S. Dollars)% Urban Adult Literacy (Aged 15 or Over)
Japan P 99,920 684 68.1 98.0 1960
Tropical China S-P-D 81,670*
Philippines P-D 34,656 251 29.9 75.0 1958
South Korea P-D 29,784 145 28.0 77.0 1955
North Vietnam T-D 20,100 -- 9.5 -- --
North Korea T-D 12,700 -- 10.0* -- --
South vietnam S-P-D 16,973 98 34.0* -- --
Australia P 14,095 1663 30.0* 98.5 1950
Hong Kong (NS) P-D 3,834 335 76.6 57.5 1950
New Zealand P 2,746 1656 63.6 98.5 1950
West Irian T-D 820 -- -- -- --
Western Samoa T 135 -- -- -- --
Maldive Islands D-T 103 -- (10.3) -- --

1 2 3 4 5 6
Name of Country Type of Influence Most pronounced in RegimePopulation (In Thousands)GNP (1963 Per Capita U.S. Dollars)% Urban Adult Literacy (Aged 15 or Over)
Andra Pradesh* D 35,9838 468 18.0 (Total)
Assam D 11,873 49
Bihar D 46,456 30
Gujarat D 20,633 58
Kashmir D 3,561 40
Kerala D 16,904 45
Madhya Pradesh D 32,373 48
Madras D 33,687 49
Maharashtra D 39,554 61
Mysore D 23,587 49
Nagaland D 369 --
Orissa D 17,549 33
Punjab D 20,307 60
Rajastjan D 20,156 51
Uttar Pradesh D 73,746 44
West Bengal D 34,926 67
Bhutan D 770 61 -- -- --
Nepal D 565 61 2.8 5.0 1953
Sikkim (NS) D 183 -- 4.2 -- --

1 2 3 4 5 6
Name of Country Type of Influence Most pronounced in RegimePopulation (In Thousands)GNP (1963 Per Capita U.S. Dollars)% Urban Adult Literacy (Aged 15 or Over)
Pakistan S-D 107,258 93 13.1 13.0 1951
Turkey P-D-S 32,710 259 34.4 39.0 1955
Iran P-D 26,284 208 (31.4) 15.0 1956
Afghanistan P-D 15,751 60 15.0* 2.5 1950
Iraq S-P-D 8,440 226 44.1 10.0 1947
Saudi Arabia P-D 6,990 172 28.0* 2.5 1950
Syria S-D 5,600 178 36.9 27.5 1950
Yemen D-P 5,000 -- 11.0* 2.5 1950
Lebanon P 2,520 -- 45.0* 47.5 1950
Jordan P-D-S 2,145 211 43.9 17.5 1950
People's Republic of Southern Yhemen D 1,170 166 -- 5.0 1950
Muscat & Oman D 750 -- 10.0* -- --
Kuwait D-P 520 3611 99.0* 30.0 1957
Bahrain D-P 195 -- (82.3) -- --
Trucial Oman States D 136 -- -- -- --
Qatar D 075 -- -- -- --

1. The most admirably constructed model of a world constitution to this day was the work of Guiseppe Borgese and the Committee to Frame a World Constitution; the document was published in March, 1948, as Volume I, No. 9 of the journal, Common Cause (The University of Chicago Library has copies of the materials, now out-of-print).
2. Joseph S. Nye, Jr., ed., International Regionalism (Boston: Little, Brown, 1968), pp. v-vi. See also Bruce Russett, International Regions and the International System (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1967); Ernst Haas, Beyond the Nation State (Stanford, Cal.: Stanford University Press, 1964); Ruth C. Lawson, ed., International Regional Organizations: Constitutional Foundations (New York: Praeger, 1962), containing documents; Inis Claude, Swords into Plowshares (New York: Random House, 1959); Amitai Etzioni, Political Unification (New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1965); Gwendolyn Carter, ed., National Unity and Regionalism in Eight African States (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1966).
3. The United Nations has experimented in many fields but is cursed by structural inadequacies. It is overrun by small weak delegations and split between the U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. blocs, among others. So long as it remains in the United States it diverts the attention and energies of many of the kalotic group in the nation from more vigorous and far-reaching programs. There would be a general willingness (some of it founded upon irrelevant and anti-kalotic considerations) to place the U.N. elsewhere. Its docimastic location should be at Istanbul. The Region I Capital should be set up in its place in New York.

Later on, as the new Cosmarchy forms from two regions. Istanbul can serve as the capital of the world government and the U.N. facilities should be absorbed into it, as the League of Nations remnants were absorbed by the U.N. after World War II. Istanbul has already been the center of three great multi-civilization megalarchies, the Roman, the Byzantine, and the Ottoman. Its magnificant natural setting is worthy of the Cosmarchy. It impinges upon communist, West European, Middle East, and Mediterranean cultures, and is not far from the Productivity-population Center of Gravity of Earth.
4. Cf. Arnold Rivkin, ed., Nations by Design: Institution Building in Africa (New York: Doubleday Anchor, 1968).
5. Judd Polk, "The Economic Implications of the Multinational Corporation," in The Multinational Corporation (Office of External Research, U.S. Department of State, Washington, D.C., 1969), p. 15.
6. Yearbook of International Associations (1966).
7. Cf. David Mitrany, A Working Peace System (1943, 1966).
8. With the radius extended to the nearest land if the circle of concentration is otherwise on water.
9. Cf. Paul Ove Pedersen and Walter Stohr, "Economic Integration and the Spatial Development of South America," for the type of calculations and cartography that can be applied to the apportionment of WMC's, in XII American Behavioral Scientist (1969), pp. 2-12. As early as 1933, the U.S. President's Committee on Social Trends had redrawn the map of the U.S.A. on the basis of metropolitan newspaper circulation. Much earlier, Auguste Comte, the sociologist and positivist, suggested the "nations" be composed of cities and their hinterlands.


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