previous.gif     next.gif    

by H. Crosthwaite


In transcribing certain Hebrew letters, I have used the following rough equivalents:


The 'h' is dropped if a letter has a daghesh (a dot inside the Hebrew letter to harden the sound).

hethch as in Scottish 'loch'

In Greek, tradition makes it difficult to be consistent. The Greek vowel 'u' is often rendered as 'y' and 'k' as a hard 'c'.

In Russian, the softening of a consonant can be represented by a 'j' (yod), as in 'ogonj', fire. Some sounds in both ancient and modern languages have no equivalent in standard English.

No claim is made that in this glossary identities are established, or that coincidence plays no part. It is meant to raise possibilities, which the reader may accept or reject as he or she wishes.

Akk. = Akkadian
Ar. = Arabic
Eg. = Egyptian
Etr. = Etruscan
Gk. = Greek
Heb. = Hebrew
Hi. = Hittite
Lat. = Latin
Slav. = Slavonic
Sum. = Sumerian

A   A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W Y Z
above Heb. al.
Acheron Ar. Achernar, river's end (star in Eridanus).
Adapa Sum., name of the first man. After his creation, the exalted tiara and throne of kingship were lowered from heaven to Eridu
aegis Gk., goatskin. Heb. ez, goat; ezer, helper.
Agave Name of the mother of Pentheus in The Bacchae. Heb. agabh, to desire, lust after.
alphabet Pliny says that it was brought to Latium by the Pelasgi, that Cadmus imported an alphabet of fifteen letters from Phoenicia, and that Palamedes (time of the Trojan war) added zeta, phi, psi and chi (Nat. Hist. VII). Corinth and its colonies retained koppa, origin of the Latin 'Q'.
also Heb. gam. Cf. Gk. hama, together with.
altar Eg. chaut; Heb. harel (har = mountain); Gk. bomos, thumele, eschara; Lat. ara; Etr. ar, fire; cf. the Syrian city of Arpad; voice of the altar? (Gk. phatis is a divine utterance).
Amar Sin Sum., bull-calf of Sin
amber Gk. elektron; Heb. chashmal, in Bible = radiant, in modern Heb. = electricity, as a substance = amber. Eg. sakal, Lat. sucinum.
An Sum., heaven, sky-god. Cf. Gk. ana, up.
Anaqim Heb., descendants of the giant Anaq. Gk. Anakes, the Dioscuri; anax andron, lord of men (of Agamemnon).
angry To become angry, Etr. ithe. Cf. Gk. ithuno, straighten, direct; of Zeus, to rule.
anoint Etr. luas; Gk. Iouo, wash.
Anu Akk.= An; Eg. Nu.
animals Etr. bacchetidis; Albanian bageti.
apex Eg. ap = top.
approach Heb. qarabh.
arena Etr. truia; cf. Troy. Gk. agon = arena or struggle.
Ariadne Her name may not be Ariadne, very holy, but ar yad na, hand of fire. The ending -na is frequent inEtruscan. Ar, Etr., is electrical fire; yad, Heb., is ahand. She was a goddess as well as a mortal princess, and may be the lady portrayed holding a snake in each hand. She resembles Britomartis, Artemis, and to some extent Athene. There was a Cretan festival, the Hellotia, in honour of Ariadne. Athene Hellotis was worshipped at Corinth. German 'hell' = bright. It is noteworthy that snakes in the hands of statuettes are sometimes suggestive of a bow, and vice versa.
ark Heb. aron. Cf. ar, fire, and ka. Lat. arca = chest.
art Lat. ars, skill. Cf. Gk. ararisko, join, fit, artuno, prepare, aresko, please. Adjustment of fittings for the best electrical display.
Ashur Akk, great fire. Ur, great; ash, esh, fire.
atef Eg., headgear of plume, disk and horns.
Atrahasis Sum., very wise, a name of Utnapishtim, alias Ziusudra. Cf. Psalm XXIX:9: 'The Lord sitteth above the water-flood'. Cf. Heb. atarah, crown.
axe Lydion labrys; Lat. dolabra; Akk. hazi (Lat. hasta =spear); Gk. pelekus (cf. Peleg, Genesis X:25); Lat. bipennis, securis; Heb. seghor, axe, spear, refined gold; Heb. kashil, axe or hoe, and maghzerah, axe. Cf. Etr. macstrna, macstrevc; Lat. magister, magistratus. Kybelis is a double axe, according to Hesychius.
B   A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W Y Z
banquet Etr. vacl, epl; Lat. epulum, Heb. mishte; cf. Gk. mistullo, cut up meat; Slav. myaso, meat.
Baradost In Iraq, name of mountain range with caves; cf. Heb. baradh, hail, fall of hot stones.
battle Heb. milchamah; Gk. mache; cf. Heb. machah, destroy.
beard Gk. pogon; Lat. Barba; Eg. chabes. Eg. bes = flame.
bees Gk. melissa; Lat. Apis. There was a cave of bees in Crete, where Rhea gave birth to Zeus. Every year a fiery glow is seen coming from the cave, caused by the blood from the birth of Zeus. Four men put on bronze armour, took some honey, and viewed the swaddling clothes of Zeus. At once their armour cracked and fell off. Zeus aimed his thunderbolt, but was restrained by Fate and Themis. The four men were transformed into birds. Ovid, Fasti III, says that honey was invented by Bacchus.
bird Heb. oph. See 'hoopoe'. Gk. omis, oionos; Lat. avis, volucris.
blood Heb. dam; Gk. haima; Etr. zac, thac; Lat. sanguis. Cf. Sum. sanga, priest.
boat Eg. hennu, a sacred boat.
Boreas The North Wind. He is the Kassite god Buriash. Fire of Bor? (esh, ash = fire) Cf. sobor (Slav.), spur (Etr.), subura, and vide Appendix B, urbs. Cf. also spanza, libation, down from the five.
breastplate choshen (of the Heb. high priest).
breath life Heb. neshamah.
Britomartis Wine-wife, wine-maiden. Hungarian ver = blood, bor= wine. Albanian vere = wine; Breseus is a name of Dionysus. Gk. damart- = wife. Cf. Ariadne, who married Dionysus.
bronze Gk. chalkos (cf. alke, strength); Heb. nachush.
burn Gk. kaio; cf Eg. ka; Lat. incendo, uro, ardeo.
bull Eg. ka; Gk. tauros (tarache = confusion), bous; Lat. taurus.
C   A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W Y Z
carve Etr. cana; Albanian qane; Lat. cena; the old form, caesna, is from caeao, cut. Slav. tsena = price, prize.
cauldron Gk. lebes, lebet-, El's dwelling.
cave Lydian pel; Etr. spel; Gk. spelaion; Lat. spelaeum, spelunca, caverna. Hesiod uses glaphu. Gr. antron.
chariot Eg. urit; Gk. harma, satine; Lat. currus, essedum.
cherub Heb. cherebh; cf. Gk. cheir, hand.
city Heb. ir; Etr. spur; Sanskrit pur; Lat. subura, urbs; Slav. sobor, assembly; Gk. astu, polis, city; Eg. Waset =Thebes. City boundaries, Etr. tular spural.
comet Gk. kometes, hairy; Lat. stella crinita, comata.
copper Copper or bronze, Heb. nachush. Nachash = to give oracles.
crown Gk. stephanos; Heb. nezer, tsephirah, atarah; cf. Gk. sphaira; Eg. teshe; Lat. sertum is a garland. Eg. mech, tiara; cf. Gk. mechane, device.
cursa Name of a star in Eridanus; in Arabic, throne.
cut Heb. habhar, to cut, to divide heavens in astrology.
D   A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W Y Z
Damascus Dim ash ka. Slav. dim, smoke; ash, fire; ka (from Egyptian).
dance Heb. chaghagh dance, process, reel. Chaghav = ravine.
daughter Eg. sat.
dawn Heb. or = light; cf. Lat. aurora.
destiny Etr. rad; Lat. ratio.
destruction Heb. kalah; cf. Sanskrit Kali.
destroy Heb. machah; Gk. mache, battle, machaira, cutlass.
dithyramb Heb. shiggayon; Gk. sikinnis (a Cretan dance).
discern Heb. kerithuth; Gk. krino. Krites = judge.
door Eg. seb, thaireaa; Gk. hepta, seven; thura, door.
dome Dome of the Rock Heb. kipat hasela; sela, rock. Gk. selas = light.
double Eg. ka; Gk. eidolon, image.
dragon Heb. nachash (constellation). nachash with short 'a' = omen.
dwelling Heb. gar; cf. Gk. chara, charis, grace, and kara, head. Cf. Heb. shekhinah, divine radiance or presence.
dur Dur Sharrukin, Sargon's fortress. Cf. Lat. turris, tower.
E   A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W Y Z
earth Eg. ta; Gk. da, ga, get Poteidan = Poseidon.
east Ar. al shark Lat. cras = tomorrow. A final 's' in Latin was less sharp than an initial 's', more like samekh than tsadhe. For the link between dawn and tomorrow, Gk. aurion, tomorrow, and Aurora, goddess of the dawn. For the reversed direction of the writing of 'shark', cf. raqs (Ar., dance), and sqr (Lat. etc., sacred); balta (Ar.), axe, Lat. dolabra.
element Gk. stoicheion, arche.
enchant Heb. kashaph. Lat. sapere = to be wise, understand.
engrave Heb. chaqaq = engrave, sceptre. Eg. chaker = design.
Enki Sum., lord earth; cf. Gk. ge.
Entemena Sum., lord of the temple platform. Gk. temenos = area cut off, shrine.
epilepsy The hand of Sin; the Heraklean disease, the holy disease.
Etemenanki The tower of Babel, temple foundation of heaven and earth.
evil Eg. ker; Gk. ker = evil spirit.
F   A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W Y Z
fable Etr. fabulonia = henbane; Albanian babullij = roar, rave. 'Fabulaeque Manes', Horace, Odes I:4:16. Fabula is the plot of a play.
face Eg. her, hra, = face; also 'upon'. Cf. Gk. Hera.
fate It is fated, Gk. chre, = ka rhei ka speaks.
father Etr. at; Hi. atta; Albanian at; Russian otets; Heb. abh: cf. Lat. avus, grandfather, ancestor.
fear Eg. herit; cf. Etr. Sert, a fearsome deity; Gk. thronos = throne. Etr. tru, drouna, = fear. Heb. mora = fear, reverence, miracle. Lat. mora = delay. Heb. yirah = fear. Yirah Yahweh, fear of god, religion. Cf. Gk. hiereus, priest, and hieros, holy.
feast Etr. and Lat. caerimonia; Albanian kreme.
fire Heb. esh (nephesh = soul); Etr. ar; Lat. ara = altar; Eg. chet, fire; cf. Gk. chaite, hair, mane; Etr. zar; Slav. zhar. Etr. sarve, put fire; Albanian zjarrve; Lat. servo, servio. Fire-stick, Eg. tcha. Eg. tehen = pillar; cf. Gk. techne. Gk. pur, Lat. ignis, incendium, = fire.
firmament Heb. rakia. Gk. kio = go. Where Ra goes?
fish Eg. an; cf. Phoenician Dagon; Heb. dagh.
flail Eg. khu; also = spirit-soul, radiance.
flame Heb. lahabh, flame, lightning, spear-point. Lahat, flame; with long vowels, = magic. Eg. besu, flame.
flint Lat. silex.
flourish Etr. thal = go out, be successful. Gk. thallo.
fly to Eg. pa; Gk. petesthai
footstool Gk. threnus, Akk. galtappu. Gk. threnos = dirge.
force Eg. Bi = The Mighty One of Iniquity. Gk. bia, force.
form Eg. qaa.
foundation Eg. sent; cf. Vergil Aeneid I:426, sanctus senatus, at Carthage.
fringe Eg. secher.
frog Eg. Heqt, frog goddess; cf. Gk. Hekate.
fruitful, to be Heb. para; cf. Lat. pario, bring forth.
funerary Etr. suthina, suthi; cf. suttee.
G   A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W Y Z
glory Heb. kabhodh; cf. Lat. caput; Eg. khu, radiance, and ka. See 'liver'.
glow Heb. chamam. Chaman = sun-pillar, idol of Baal.
goat Gk. tragos, aix, aig-; aegis, goat-skin; Heb. ez. Ezer = helper. Lat. caper, goat; cf. Eg. ka, + per, house.
goat-stag Gk. tragelaphos, a bearded deer.
god Gk. theos, daimon; Etr. iu; Lat. deus.
gold Heb. zahabh; Lat. aurum; Gk. chrusos; cf. Heb. or, light.
good Heb. tobh; cf. Slav. dobr-, good.
goose Eg. khenkhenur, the great cackler, nekekur, smen. Gk. chen; Lat. anser.
governor Sum. en, ensi. Lat. ensis = sword.
great Heb. gadhol; Eg. ur; Gk. megal-; Lat. magnus, altus (tall); cf. Lat. adolere, to magnify, to worship.
H   A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W Y Z
hair, mane Gk. chaite; Eg. Chet = hair; Lat. coma, iuba; Lat. iubar = radiance of heavenly body, especially of Phosphorus and Hesperus (Venus).
half Etr. ims; Gk. hemisu; Lat. semi.
hammurapi 'The god Hammu is a healer', or 'the rod of Hammu'. Gk. rapis = rod
hand Gk. cheir; Heb. cherebh = sword. Gk.pux means 'with the fist'. Cf. Iapyx, Iapygia.
head Eg. tep; cf. Karatepe; Gk. kara, kare; Etr. katec. Ka + tego, protect?
healing Heb. marpe. Marpessus: an oracle of Apollo in Asia Minor. Gk. iatros, doctor; Lat. sanare, to heal.
heaven Eg. pet; Gk. iatros Lat. Caelus (father of Saturn), caelum; Heb. shamayim.
helmet Eg. khepers; Lat. galea, cassis; Gk. korus.
Herakles Called Mars by some', Pliny N.H.:II.
high Heb. ram; Gk. hypselos; Lat. altus.
holy Heb. qadhosh; qadhach, to burn, glow; qaran, to shine; qayin, spear, point; qardom, axe; qeshet, bow, rainbow, power.
hoof Gk. onuch-; cf. Eg. ankh, Coptic onkh. Gk. hople, hoof; hoplon, weapon.
hoopoe Heb. dukiphat. Cf. Slav. duch, spirit. Heb. pathar = explain; Sanskrit pathi, path; Lat. pons, bridge, path; pontifex, priest; Gk. phatis, utterance; Lat. fatum, fate.
horn Heb. qeren; Gk. keras; Lat. cornu.
horse Heb. sus; Akk. sisu. Cf. Celtic horse deity Esus.
house Eg. per. Per = go out. Cf. Parnassus. Eg. het, house or temple; neter het, god's house. Cf. Gk. antron, Lat. caverna, Etr. fanu, Lat. fanum, Albanian bane. House of Heaven, the name of the temple of the goddess Inanna, Semitic Ishtar, Sum E-Anna.
I   A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W Y Z
ibis Eg. tehuti.
image Heb. tselem, tsalmaveth, shadow of death.
iron Heb. palda; cf. Etr. and Lat. falando, fala, scaffolding (symbolising sky).
Isis Eg. Ast, Auset, seat, throne.
into Etr. painem; cf. Heb. bein, between.
incense Eg. sentra.
J   A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W Y Z
jackal Eg. sab, also = a wise person; cf. Lat. sapere, to be wise, to understand.
Janus Lat. Bifrons; Etr. Culsan. He resembles a Sumerian deity who opens the celestial gates to Shamash the sun.
justice Gk. dike; cf. Heb. tsadiq, just.
K   A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W Y Z
ka Eg., the double; cf. Heb. qadhosh, holy; Lat. cacumen = peak, point; ka + culmen, top. Cf. columen; -cello, strike. ka also = bull. Cf. Lat. caverna, a cave.
Ka-dingir-ra Babylon. Karduniash = Babylonia.
kerukeion The staff of Hermes; ka + eruko. Lat. caduceus.
kill Heb. haragh; cf. Gk. charax, stake; Eg. Harachte.
king Eg. hen; Heb. melekh; Sum. lugal; Gk. basileus, turannos, anax, Lat. rex. King of the four regions: Sum. Shar kibrat arbaim. Cf. Roma quadrata, the four quarters of Rome. Heb. arba = four.
knife Heb. sakin; cf. Lat. seco, cut.
know Heb. yadha; cf. Gk. oida.
kudurru Akk. stele; cf. Lat. turris.
L   A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W Y Z
Ladon Serpent killed by Herakles. E1 Adon?
Lady Eg. turan; cf. Gk. turannos, despoina.
lamp Heb. ner. Nergal is the planet Mars. Gal = great; cf. Gk. megal-, great.
languid Heb. chalah, to be languid; = Gk. chalan.
laurel Gk. daphne; Lat. laurus. It makes loud noises when burned, as does holly.
lazy Heb. paghar; Lat. piger.
libation Etr. lacth; cf. Gk. lekuthos, oil-bottle. Etr. spanza, pour libation; Hi. sipand; Gk. spendo. Cf. Hi. panza = five, Sanskrit pancha. 'S' (Slav.) = with, down from. Etr. huriur, husiur, is a libation; Gk. cheo, I pour. Chusis, a pouring. Eg. ur = great. The great pouring.
life Heb. chaim; Etr. knie; cf. Eg. Khnum, the god that creates man; and Lat. genius; Eg. ankh.
light Heb. or; Gk. phos = man, phos (neuter) = light; selas, lightning flash; cf. Heb. sela, rock. Etr. kvil light (Tanaquil); Lat. lux, Etr. loschna; cf. Slav. losk gleam; Lat. luscus, one-eyed. light-tower Eg. an. Etr. kvil (aquila, Tanaquil); Hungarian kivilagit is to illuminate.
lightning Heb. gachelet, bazaq, baraq (cf. bareqeth, emerald; barqan, threshing-sledge), chaziz, cf. chazir, boar; lapidh; cf. Lat. lapides; stones; Etr; thehen; cf. Gkf. thuo, sacrifice by fire.
lightningconductor Etr. arseverse; cf. Lat. severto, turn aside.
lineage Etr. thur; Albanian dore; cf. Gk. thura, door.
lion Heb. ari. Ariel, lion of god, hero, Jer-salem, altar, hearth.
liver Etr. caveth, Heb. kabhedh; cf. kabhodh, weight, glory, soul, person. Lat. iecur.
look, to Heb. nabhat. Nabhi prophet. Cf. Gk. ana, up, and (v)idein, to see. The digamma gives Lat. video, see.
lot Voting stone, Heb. goral.
linen Linen garments, Eg. menkh. Cf. Gk. meno, stay, resist.
lord Gk. despotes. Cf. Teshub, the Hurrian storm god. Gk. kurios. Eg. neb; cf. Lat. Neptunus; Heb. adhon, Baal, sar; Eg. ser, ur; Lat. servus.
M   A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W Y Z
magic Heb. lat; see 'flame'. To practice magic, kashaph.
majestic,to be Heb. ga-a; also = to rise, grow up. Gaon, majesty, swelling.
man Gk. phos, anthropos, aner; Etr. aner.
mane Gk. chaite; Lat. iuba; cf. iu, god; ba, soul.
market Etr. terg; Slav. torgovlia, trade.
meal Sacred, of meat, Heb. tebach; Lat. dapes; Etr. vacl.
meat Etr. mis; Slav. mjaso. Cf. Gk. mistullo, cut up meat before roasting.
messenger Heb., malakh; melekh = king. The king was the interpreter of the will of the god.
metal Heb. pach = metal plate; pachim (plural), lightning, heat, glow.
milk Heb. chalabh; Gk. gala.
mountain Etr. mal Cf. Gk. mallos, Lat. mallus, lock of wool.
mummy Eg. sahu.
murmur Heb. haghah. Cf. Gk. hagios, and hagnos, holy.
Muses Gk. Pierides (from Mt. Pieros in Thessaly). Cf. Heb. pe'er, head-dress, turban, chaplet.
N   A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W Y Z
nail Gk. helos, nail, in Homer is only for ornament. A sceptre has golden nails, as does a sword. Zelos, envy, may be Set's nail; cf. phthonos, envy, in the Timaeus. Arizelos, conspicuous, of the rays of a star (Iliad, XIII:244), has the prefn 'ari' which may be 'ar', fire. When Zeus turns a snake into stone, he makes it 'arizelon'. (Illiad II:318).
name Heb. shem. Gk. sema = sign, mark.
Nar Marratu Bitter river, Persian Gulf. Lat. amarus = bitter.
Neith Eg. Net, the goddess Neith.
net Eg. sat is a net-work garment, such as was worn by Greek seers. Net-man Retiarius, armed with net and trident, in Roman amphitheatre.
night Heb. lailah. Cf. Gk. lailaps, storm. In the storm that Poseidon sends against Odysseus, 'night rushed down from heaven' Odyssey V:294.
Nile Eg. Hap. Hap-ur, the great Hapi, the Celestial Nile.
nod Heb. nudh; Lat. nutare, especially of Jupiter.
north Heb. tsaphon = north, northern sky. Tsaphah = to watch; as participle, a watchman, seer, prophet. Ar. al shamal = the north. Cf. Heb. chashmal, amber. Gk. Boreas, the north wind, the north; arktos, the north, the north star, a bear, and a girl at Athens who was a servant of Arternis Brauronia.
O   A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W Y Z
Oak Heb. tirzah; Gk. drus.
Obelisk Cf. Eg. techen, and Gk. techne (skill, cunning device). Gk. obelos = a spit, for roasting. When of stone, it is a pillar, Herodotus II:111, 170.
olive Eg. baaq; cf. Lat. baca, berry.
Omen Heb. nachash, oth, othoth; cf. Gk. ototoi Cassandra's cry of woe; Aeschylus, Agamemnon 1072.
Onion Lat. caepa; Ar. basal. Cf. garlic, Gk. skorodon, physinx, gelgith- (cf. Heb. gulgoleth, skull); Lat. allium.
Open Heb. pathah, to open, be open; pathar, explain; pethach, door; cf. Gk. ptuche, recess (seven recesses?); Sanskrit pathi path;Gk. patos; Lat. patere, to be open; cf. pons, way, bridge; pontifex, priest. Cf. Apollo Svulare, the revealer.
oracle Heb. massa = oracle, elevation, song, lifting of voice, desire. Ne'um, oracle; na'am, to murmur. Gk. chresterion, oracle.
order Etr. rath; Lat. ratio; cf. Heb. sedera and Lat. sidera, stars. (Sedera = row).
ox Heb. par; cf. Slav. par, steam.
Pelasgians They were 'dioi'= divine, and were among the inhabitants of Crete mentioned in Odyssey XIX: 177. I suggest that they were pel sagi, people with cave knowledge. Pel (Lydian) = cave; sagus (Lat.) = wise, especially about divine and future matters. The caves in the Northwest slopes of the Athenian Acropolis may have been of special interest to the Pelasgians.
P   A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W Y Z
pelops Voice from the cave; pel, cave (Lydian), ops, voice (Gk.).
phoenix Eg. khu = head of the bennu bird.
pillar Heb. shath; Eg. an, ucha; Gk. kion, stulos; Lat. columna; Et. prezu; cf. Gk. prester, thunderbolt. Eg. an, light- tower.
pitcher Jug, Heb. kadh; Gk. kados; Etr. kathesa.
planets Heb. mazzaloth. Slav. mesto = place. El's place? Cf. Mazzaroth (signs of Zodiac?).
prayer Gk. ara. Heb. arar, to curse. Etr. lut, to pray; cf. Gk. lite, a prayer or curse.
pride Heb. zadhon. Adhon = lord.
priest Sum. sanga; Eg. neter hen, divine servant; Heb. kohen (hen = servant); kamar, priest serving an idol; Gk. hiereus; Lat. sacerdos, flamen (he who blows the flame), pontifex, bridge or path maker. Cf. Heb. kamar and Etr. mer (take?).
prince Eg. ur, ser; Lat. servus; Heb. sar, lord. Philistine p., seren; cf. Lat. serenus, clear (of the sky), of Jupiter.
prize Lat. cena, banquet; Slav. tsena, price.
prophet Heb. nabhi; chazah, prophesy. Gk. mantis.
protection amulet, Eg. sa; cf. Gk. saos, safe.
prytanis Senior Athenian official who tended fire by waving firebrands. Gk. pyr, fire; tanuo, brandish. Etr. eprithieva, he was a prutanis.
pyramid In The Book of the Dead, a pyramid of Pepi is identified with Osiris (Budge p. 646).
pylon Eg. sebchet, fire-gate; cf. Gk. chaite, mane.
R   A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W Y Z
raise Heb. nasa; Gk. anasso = rule; ana = up, aisso, set in motion.
red 'I am the lord of redness in the day of transformations'. (The Book of the Dead, p. 609).
rock Heb. sela; cf. Gk. selas, light. Gk. petra, rock; petros, stone. Mummies were encased in rock-crystaI, Herodotus III:24.
S   A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W Y Z
sceptre Eg. tcham; Gk. kerukeion; Lat. caduceus, baculum; Heb. shebhet, sceptre, threshingstick rod.
seat Eg. ast; cf. Auset, the goddess Isis.
see Heb. ra'ah; or = light; cf. Eg. ra, and Gk. horo, see.
senate Cf. Eg. sent, outline of foundation of building. See Aeneid I:426, on the foundation of Carthage.
sepulchre Heb. qebher; cf. Lat. caverna. Gk. kamara is anything with a vaulted roof, Lat. camera. The usual derivation is from kampto, bend, but note the Hebrew mearah, cave. Eg. meh is to fill. Full of ar, electrical fire? Abraham buried Sarah in the cave of the field of Machpelah, Genesis XXIII: 19. Pel (Lydian) is a cave.
serpent Eg. ara; Eg. serpent-goddess, Mehent. Cf. Gk. mechane, device, and Heb. Nechustan, the brazen serpent, Numbers XXI:9. Gk. ara, prayer, or curse.
seven Eg. seb, gate; cf. Gk. hepta, Lat. septem; seven planets, seven-gated Thebes.
shade Etr. hia; Gk. skia; cf. Hi. siu, god.
shepherd Gk. poimen; Finnish paimen.
sign Heb. oth, pl. othoth; cf. Gk. ototoi Alas! Aesch. Ag. 1072; Gk. sema; Lat. monstrum. Gk. otobos, a startling noise, e.g. din of battle, thunder, rattle of chariots, noise of pipes.
sin Heb. chata, to sin; cf. Gk. chaite, hair, mane; hamartano, miss the mark, sin; Lat. erro (wander), pecco.
skin Heb. or; also = light. Shining with oil?
sky Etr. falando; Lat. caelum. Fala, scaffolding. 'Falacer' is a flamen.
slaughter Heb. zabhach; cf. Gk. sphazo.
slay Heb. haragh; cf. Eg. harachte.
smoke Gk. kapnos, ka, and pnous, breath?
song Heb. shir; cf. Gk. Seiren, Siren.
soul Ba, khu, ka, nephesh, psyche, anima, animus, genius, daimon, neshamah.
speak Hep. dabhar. Cf. Heb. tobh, good; Slav. dobr-; Etr. ar = fire.
spear Heb. chanith. Gk. kentron, goad.
staff Gk. skeptron; Heb. maqqel; Lat. macellum, shambles. Lat. macto, sacrifice, magnify, worship, slaughter. Lat. baculum, stick.
stone Macedonian pela (spel, cave?); Eg. aner; cf. Gk. aner, man. Deucalion and Pyrrha threw stones which became men and women. Heb. goral, voting stone; Etr. kur; Sanskrit garu, heavy; Etr. penthuna, slab of stone; cf. Gk. Pentelikos, where marble was quarried. Gk. petros Cf. Lat. iecur, liver (ie = god).
strike Etr. rach; Heb. haragh = slay.
summer Heb. kaits. Gk. kaio, burn.
sun Etr. erus, usil; Heb. shemesh.
sweet Eg. bener; Lat. Venus, Vener-; Etr. aplu; cf. Lat. placet, it pleases. Gk. ampelos, vine; Albanian ambel, sweet.
sword Heb. cherebh; Gk. cheir, hand or arm; Heb. mekhera; Gk. machaira, cutlass.
T   A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W Y Z
Tarquin Cf. the Asian deity Tark or Tarkon.
terebinth Heb. elah; Gk. elate, pine.
Thebes Eg. Uast (child of Set). Cf. Gk. astu, city.
there Heb. sham. Shamayim, the there-waters, the heavens.
threshing Etr. lamna. Gk. halos, aloe, dinos.
throne Eg. ast, auset; Gk. thronos; cf. Etr. drouna, fear. Heb. kisse, seat; cf. Sum. kish. Gk. kissos, ivy; Lat. hedera; cf. Gk. hedra, seat, especially of the gods. Ivy was wound round the thyrsus.
thunder Etr. cemnac, frontac, thunderer. Gk. semnos, holy. (Astrape = lightning).
tin Gk. kassiteros; Sanskrit kastira = shine; Ar. kasdir.
tool Eg. met, tool or weapon. Gk. mechane?
transgression Heb. shal. Lat. salire, leap.
tripod Etr. cisum pute; cis = three; Gk. podes, feet.
Typhoeus He is 'arduus'. High, or is he blazing? Ar, fire; ara, altar.
U   A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W Y Z
under-world Eg. neter chert; cf. Etr., Slav., garth, gorod, etc.. Etr. muth, Lat. mundus, German Mund (mouth), opening to the underworld.
urim Unm vethummim, (on the high priest's breastplate. Gk. etumos = true). 'Light and Truth'. Ve in Heb. = and.
V   A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W Y Z
vain, in Gk. maten; Slav. darom (as a gift = in vain); cf. Heb. mattanah, gift.
vine Gk. ampelos; Lat. vitis. Lat. vis = force, vita = life.
voice Heb. qol, Slav. golos; cf. Slav. glagol, word, as in Janacek's Glagolitic Mass; Russian glagol = verb. Cf. Gk. logos, word. Gk. ops, voice. Pelops, the voice from the cave. Arpad, voice of the altar. Gk. phatis, utterance, especially divine or oracular utterance.
W   A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W Y Z
wagons Frequent in Celtic myth. Gods moving in the sky? Thor's cart was drawn by goats.
war Battle, war: Heb. milchamah; Gk. polemos; mache, battle. Lat. bellum, war; pugna, proelium, battle.
way A going, Heb. derekh; cf. Lat. rego, dirigo, guide, rule.
west Heb. marabh; erebh, evening. Gk. Erebos, a place of darkness on the way to Hades, Odyssey X:528. The link between west and Hades appears in Eg. Amenti, Hades, and Ement, the west.
with Etr. me, e.g. menatha, with the night. Gk. meta = with.
wizard Heb. yidhoni; cf. Gk. idein, see.
wolf Etr. vc; Albanian uc; Gk. lukos.
word Heb. milah; Gk. homilia, association. Heb. dabhar. Debhir, the Holy of Holies, qodhesh haqqodhashim, sanctum sanctorum, at the west end of the temple. Debher, destruction.
Y   A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W Y Z
young Etr. re, ri; cf. Lat. rite. Renewal by rite? Cf. akitu, the Babylonian New Year festival, and Lat. ago, actum, do, perform.
youth Heb. alumim; cf. Lat. alumnus, pupil.
Z   A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W Y Z
Zeus He is sedens, sitting on his throne. Cf. Ziusudra, and Psalm XXIX:9, 'The Lord sitteth above the water-flood'.
zil Etr. for Lat. sedile, seat, or throne.
zilch, zilc An Etruscan magistrate, zilouchos, chair-occupier. Cf. Gk. skeptouchos, holding the sceptre, of Zeus, or of a king (frequent in Homer). Roman magistrates with imperium had each a curule chair, sella curulis. Curulis is derived from currus, chariot, a divine vehicle. Juno is addressed as Juno Curulis in an ancient prayer.

========= End of KA =========


previous.gif     next.gif