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by Alfred de Grazia and Earl R. Milton



The Sun, as star, radiates energy into the space surrounding it. Stars can be conceived to have originated from electrical cavities in the structure of space. Space, to our mind, is an infinite electrical medium. It is electrical in that it is everywhere occupied by a charge, which, when it moves, assumes the character of electrons, that is, "negative" charge (see Note B). The movement energizes and carries material into the cavities which become and are the stars.

Such electrical cavities or stars are observed in the millions, and inferred in the billions, in a fairly random distribution about the Sun. They form a lagoon of stars that is called the Galaxy, through which the Sun moves in a manner, and with consequences, to be described in the next chapter. Materially, a star is an agglomeration of all that has accompanied the inflow of electrical charges from surrounding space. The cosmic dust which astronomers see throughout the galaxies is matter yet to be forced into stellar cavities, or matter that has been expelled after a star dies. This dust is detected in greatest amounts in the vicinity of the most highly active stars [3] .

Once in the cavity, the material cannot readily escape; it acquires increasing density because of electro-chemical binding and electrical accumulation. A cavity or star is increasingly charged but during its lifetime it cannot be more charged than the medium around it [4] . The Sun is highly charged, as some scientists have lately concluded (Bailey, 1960).

The life history of any new star may normally proceed as its cavity acquires first matter, and then charges continuously until its charge density reaches equilibrium with the surrounding medium, which is to say that the cavity has then been filled. Thereupon the star releases or mixes its material with the medium until it no longer possesses distinction as a body. This "normal" procedure is conditional upon the star's transacting with the space around it in a uniform manner. The majority of stars seem to transact quietly with their surrounding space, whether they are small red stars, or giant red stars. They end their existences as they lived, quietly, passing their accumulated material into the medium of space, eventually becoming indistinguishable from the medium itself.

However, the fact that the star is in motion within the galactic medium poses an occasional problem. It may journey into regions of the Galaxy which present it with greater or lesser electrical differences than it has been used to. Then quantavolution occurs. The star becomes one of the types to which astronomers pay the most attention - the variable stars, the highly luminous stars, the binary stars, the exploding stars.

It was in one such adventure in space that the original Super Sun lost its steady state, fissioned, and became Solaria Binaria. The system then consisted of a number of bodies, acting first as small "suns" with a primary partner, as is to be related in Chapter Four.

In recent times, according to the central theme of this book, this Solaria Binaria encountered a galactic region whose characteristics rendered the lesser stellar partner of the system unstable. In a series of quick changes the binary was transformed into today's Solar System.

Bruce (1944, p9) sees the process of stellar evolution as a cyclic build up of an electrically charged atmosphere above the star. As we see it, galactic potentials will determine the nature of the "surface" presented to the outside observer. As the star journeys through galactic space, its surface nature changes in response to differences in galactic potential. A change in the local galactic environment can lead to an instability which results in catastrophic electrical redistribution of the whole stellar atmosphere and sometimes of material found well beneath the star's surface layers [5] . In short, the star becomes a nova.

In his cosmogony Bruce argues that binary stars form by division of an original stellar nucleus. When the star becomes a nova, the returning nova discharge, transacting electrically with the normal outward flow of => stellar wind off the star, induces the outbursting star to rotate. A possible reverse jet blast from the explosion might also cause the rotation to occur. Stars then, should have maximum rotation during the nova outburst. Fission of the star into a binary would then logically happen most frequently by rotational fission (Kopal, 1938, p657) immediately after a nova outburst. Close-binary pairs should be found among the post-nova stars (Clark et al., 1975, p674-6; Cowley et al., 1975, p413).

The Solar System is probably the descendant of a Super Sun, a body containing at least eleven percent more material than the existing Sun, which became electrically unstable and underwent a nova explosion.

When the Super Sun erupted as a nova it divided into a close binary pair, whose primary became our present Sun; and its companion was a body about ten percent the size of the Sun (see Lyttleton, 1953, pp137ff) [6] , henceforth to be called Super Uranus, Enveloping the binary was a cloud of solar material constituting at least one percent of the Sun's material. Also created in the fission were the seeds which grew into the so-called "inner or terrestrial planets", probably Mars, the Earth, Mercury, and one that will be called Apollo. Apollo's fate is discussed in Chapter Fifteen.

Turning our attention to the Sun itself, we observe an opaque layer called the photosphere. This layer is regarded ordinarily as the Sun's surface. Above the photosphere lies the transparent solar atmosphere, which is difficult to observe. First comes the => chromosphere and then the corona. Perhaps the key to star behavior is the distinction between the photosphere and chromosphere. Each is examined and known by means of spectroscopy, that is by observing and measuring its spectrum of => radiation.

The spectrum of the photosphere shows radiation produced when the atoms, => ions, and electrons of the photosphere collide, and therefore the spectrum reflects the state of atomic collisions there. The light is emitted during the collisions. It appears that the photosphere is a region of => plasma and atoms where the motion of the material is chaotic, randomized. Collisions occur after short journeys, after short mean free paths of electrical accumulation. The electrical field is small. A high kinetic energy of collision is registered in the temperature of several thousands of degrees. Energy is transmitted with some, but not great, amounts of conversion of energy into internal atomic structures (excitation).

By contrast, the spectrum of the chromosphere represents the release of the internal energy of excited atoms and ions. Light is emitted not so much at the moment of collision among atoms, but it is cast off by rapidly accelerating atoms moving to and from collisions, that is, between rather than during collisions. The chromosphere is a region of directed, vertically moving electrons descending into the photosphere, and atoms and ions escaping into the corona and the => solar wind. The mean free path is long, not short. The electrical field is large, not small as in the photosphere.

The photosphere, thus, is a region where the transmission of energy is observed. The chromosphere is a region where the => transmutation of energy is what is observed. The temperature "measurements" of the two regions are not helpful in understanding the dynamics, because in one case, temperature is "low" where short paths lead to frequent collisions, and in the other, temperature is high because of infrequent long-path collisions. What is important is the contribution of each region to the electrical system of the Sun.

The photosphere glows brightly with a silver color (Menzel, 1959, p24). Blemishing this visible face of the Sun are dark, slightly cooler regions called sunspots, the average spot lasts less than a day (Abell, 1975, p527). Viewed by telescope, the whole photosphere, except where sunspots obscure it, shows a granular appearance. These => granules are bright patches, hot tufts of gas that live for only a few minutes (Juergens, 1979b, p36).

The photosphere and the behavior of the solar atmosphere which lies above it can best be explained using a model based upon electrical processes. Bruce (1944, p6), and later Juergens (1972, pp9ff) and Crew (1974, p539) have shown that photosphere granules have the properties of a large number of parallel electrical arcs. Further, Juergens maintains that highly energetic electrons are transmitted from the Galaxy down through the solar atmosphere to the photosphere. As in the Earth's atmosphere, the gas density and pressure in the solar atmosphere decrease with height above the photosphere. Where the atmospheric pressure falls to a value equal to one percent of the atmospheric pressure measured at the Earth's surface, collisions between gas atoms can no longer dominate the exchange of energy between the atoms. Instead it is the electrical processes that govern the energy exchanges in the solar gas. We see this transition as the hot chromosphere. The bladed or spiculed structure of the chromosphere consists of jets of gas moving upwards at about 30 kilometers per second. These spicules rise some 5000 to 20 000 kilometers above the photosphere (Abell, 1975, pp531ff) [7] .

Instabilities in the arc discharges lead to a build-up of charged regions in the solar atmosphere. These eventually produce electrical breakdown; sudden discharges occur, causing bright => faculae [8] and the temporary extinction of some photosphere arcs. The result is a sunspot (Bruce, 1944, p6).

The upper atmosphere of the Sun is the apparently intensely hot corona [9] . The gas atoms of the corona have been stripped of several electrons [10] by collisions with in flowing energetic cosmic electrons. The removed electrons are drawn towards the Sun so other ions can flow outwards into the corona allowing the coronal ions to recede into the solar wind. The spectrum of the lower corona shows the atoms stripped of several electrons emitting light between collisions, and the emission from the energetic electrons during collision.

The corona seems to be constantly ejecting its contents into space as the solar wind. The fraction of the solar output represented by the solar wind is about one-millionth. Haymes states that the whole corona is lost and replaced in about one day [11] .

Some of this material flows past the Earth's orbit as a cloud of energetic protons and helium nuclei, accompanied by electrons, known as the solar wind. In every second 100 million solar ions arrive above each square centimeter of the Earth's atmosphere.

The more luminous the star, the faster its stellar wind carries away mass, and, in general, the more rapidly the gases flow away from the star. Stellar wind flows of 10 -10 to 10 -5 . Sun masses per year have been inferred with measured velocities from 550 to 3800 kilometers per second respectively (Lamers et al., Table 1, p328).

Sudden explosive eruptions, called flares, occur above the solar surface. Energy in the form of light, atoms, and ions, is accelerated away from the Sun. The energy in a single flare could supply the Earth's population with electrical power for millions of years. A large flare releases in an instant about one-fortieth of the continuous solar output.

Flares start near sunspots, with associated faculae, and develop over hours. They move as if driven by an electrical potential difference between the Sun's surface and the higher atmosphere (Zirin, pp479ff, Obayashi, pp224ff). Once accelerated, the flare gases escape the Sun and modify the solar wind significantly. The cause of flares is baffling to conventional theories, which underplay electrical forces in cosmic processes. Most flare models involve some kind of magnetic driver to blow the gases from the Sun with great force (Babcock, p420, p422-4). The presence of magnetism implies an electric source. As we shall show in Chapter Six, the Sun once had an electrical connection to its companion, within which energy was released that created and sustained life within the binary system. Today's flares represent an undirected remnant of the inter-companion arc of yesteryear.

The solar wind consists of coronal gases which have been boiled away from the hot solar atmospheric discharges. It conducts the Sun's electrical transaction with the Galaxy. It is the Sun's connection to the Galaxy. The electron-deficient atoms (ions), by escaping from the Solar System, increase the negative charge on the Sun. This brings the Sun towards => galactic neutral and thus, in time, would end the Sun's life as star.

It follows that in the past, when the Sun was less negatively charged, more current flowed from the Sun to the Galaxy. Thus the present flow of solar wind is less than the flow in ages past when the Sun was more out of equilibrium than it is now. The Solar wind varies with the ongoing "evolution" and "quantavolution" of the Sun.

In the past the solar wind flow was very complex because we believe that the Sun was a binary star and its companion, Super Uranus, was not in electrical equilibrium with it. The system eventually approached => internal neutrality because a large solar wind, electrically driven, flowed directly between the two principals.

In this connection we may explain the origin of the heavier elements in the Solar System. They were not built up from primordial hydrogen and helium, which show up so prominently in spectroscopic observation, but rather represents an accumulation in a period measurable in thousands of years of the fragments of heavy materials scattered initially near the Sun, near its binary partner, and along the electrified axis between the two (see ahead to Figure 7).

The theory that heavier elements are sparse in the interior of the Sun is probably incorrect. Spectroscopy cannot penetrate to beyond the photosphere; therefore it must show only a cloud of hydrogen admixed with metal and molecular vapors (Ross and Aller, Table 1, p1226) at low density [12] .

The mass of the Sun is calculated as a function of the orbital motion of the planets. Probably here, too, a methodological error is occurring that serves to produce the illusion of a light mass. Thus the model of the composition of the Sun depends upon the assumed structure of the solar interior and then the Sun's mass is probably incorrectly known.

Both incorrect theories - regarding the elements and mass - contribute to the major error of conventional Solar System theory, which is that the Sun is powered by thermonuclear processes, specifically the fusion of hydrogen atoms, in its interior.

Regarding the processes which power the Sun, most astronomers believe that there is an energy source deep in the solar interior obscured from view behind the opaque photosphere. If this belief is correct then the interior of the Sun must be hotter than the photosphere. Knowledge of the conditions within the Sun is inferred as the consequence of the physical forces assumed to be governing the stability of the Sun (Smith and Jacobs, pp223ff). It is usually inferred that near the center of the Sun the gas is sufficiently hot and dense enough to bring about => nuclear fusion on a large scale.

A thermonuclear Sun is an attractive theory since the Sun seems to be composed mainly of hydrogen. By compressing itself into a nuclear-powered core the Sun might radiate energy long enough to accommodate the gradual evolutionary processes believed necessary for the biological and geological developments that have occurred on the Earth.

However, thermonuclear fusion processes must dispose of large numbers of => neutrinos, and a vastly insufficient number of neutrinos have been detected on Earth in experiments specifically designed to capture the normally elusive solar neutrinos (Parker, p31). Before the nuclear Sun theory was presented, several mechanisms were proposed to explain the Sun's output of radiant energy [13] . All of these led to a radiant lifetime that was too short to satisfy the excessive time needs of the evolutionists.

Fatal, furthermore, to all theories of an internally powered Sun is the minimal temperature of the photosphere. How can the "surface" of the Sun remain cool when it is blanketed by hotter regions below and above whose temperatures reach millions of degrees (Parker, p28)? The usual answer is that the Sun's atmosphere is heated by turbulence within the Sun's outermost interior layers below the photosphere (Wright, p123). Somehow this process which, overleaping the photosphere, heats the Sun's atmosphere is supposedly divorced from the flow of radiant energy from the Sun's interior. Since such separation of processes is unknown elsewhere this explanation is unacceptable [14] .

Lastly, the observed turbulence (the granules) on the photosphere and its opacity are not compatible with the properties of hot gas of solar composition and condition (Juergens, 1979b, pp33ff). Since Bruce has shown the Sun outside the photosphere behaves like an electrical discharge, the theory, originally by Juergens, that the origin of the Sun's energy is external and electrical, is accepted here.

Consistent with the electrical phenomena of the Sun's atmosphere, we propose an external source of solar power. The Sun's light and heat output arises from the energy released by a flow of highly energetic electrons arriving from the Galaxy [15] . This electron current is enhanced by the flow of energetic solar wind protons away from the Sun [16] . The detected plasma a density near the Earth's orbit is 2 to 10 ions per cubic centimeter [17] . The ions flow outwards. Near Jupiter's orbit the Pioneer spacecraft measured no increase in the velocity of the solar ions over their velocity measured near the Earth [18] .

Figure 2. The Sun's Connection to the Galaxy

Outward-flowing solar wind ions carry an electric current between the negatively charged Sun and the more negatively charged galactic space that surrounds it. The solar wind flows through a "transactive matrix" (see Technical Note B) of solar electrons, which permeate the interplanetary space but do not flow through it as do the ions. Inward-flowing galactic electrons, travelling at velocities close to the speed of light, carry energy from the Galaxy to the solar "surface" where it is released and radiated as light and other electromagnetic waves, which constitute the solar luminosity.

At the edge of the Solar System, escaping protons, accelerated to high energy by the drop in electrical potential between the Sun and the Galaxy, become galactic => cosmic rays and flow in all directions towards other stars. The protons expelled by other stars arrive in the Solar System as cosmic rays [19] . For energies above 100 GeV about six cosmic rays impinge upon each square meter of the Earth every second, but these few energetic particles carry inwards about one-twentieth of the energy flowing outwards with the solar wind at 1 AU.

That electron-deficient cosmic ray atoms continuously flow to Earth enhances the probability that the Earth is electrically charged. Juergens (1972) has argued that both the Earth and the Sun can have an excess (negative) charge.

At energies below 100 GeV the Sun somehow modulates the number of cosmic rays arriving in the inner Solar System (van Allen, p133). This presumably represents the maximum driving potential between the Sun and galactic space, with which it is transacting electrically. Cosmic rays with energy greatly in excess of 100 GeV would not be impeded meaningfully by the Sun's opposing driving potential.

Where the solar wind ends is yet to be determined. It was once believed the wind stopped inside Jupiter's orbit, later near Pluto, but today the wind is deemed to flow well beyond Pluto (Haymes, p237).

Somewhere the "galactic wind" meets the solar wind; there a boundary exists where the flow of incoming cosmic ray protons balances the out flowing solar wind protons. This is the edge of the Sun's discharge region, the limit of the Solar System.

To conclude, a star is born when an electric cavity forms in the charged medium of space, and matter rushes along with the charged space to fill the cavity. Then, after the cavity fills, the star dissipates into charged space, spilling out its matter simultaneously. No tombstone marks its demise; no derelicts travel forever through space. Indeed, existence is an attempt to achieve nothingness. Pockets of lesser negativity become existence by seeking to accumulate enough electric charge to emulate universal space, at which time they are capable of disappearing into nothingness.

Notes on Chapter 2:

3. To be considered is whether this may result from the dust in near stars being more observable.

4. The consequences of the temporary overcharging are described later when we consider stellar novae (Chapter Thirteen).

5. See Bruce (1966b) for a discussion which compares a lightning discharges to the light curve for Nova Herculis 1934. Bruce (1944) mentions a discharge of the order of 10 20 coulombs in the nova outburst. We see this atmospheric discharge as an electrical readjustment required after the star has responded to its changed environment.

6. Lyttleton (1938) has argued that rotational fission cannot result in the formation of a stable binary system, but his arguments are probably invalid if the bodies at fission are highly charged ( and of the same sign) but in different amounts (Note C). In this instance, immediate electrical transaction between the stars may allow non-collisional orbits to be stable, where they otherwise would not. Later criticism and support are well summarized by Batten (1973b). The arguments they're about the stability of binary orbits over long times are in question because of the work of Bass. Likewise, the claim that fission cannot occur because stellar cores cannot remain uncoupled from stellar envelopes once rotational distortion becomes appreciable is also in question if the process producing the rotation begins in the envelope rather than in the core.

7. Juergens (1979b) believes the spicule is a fountain pumping electrons from the solar surface high into the corona. If he is correct, the upward motions detected spectroscopically in the spicules are produced by atoms bombarded by the electron flow. The electrons supplied by the spicules are necessary to allow ions to travel away from the solar surface.( See also Milton, 1979.)

8. A facula (Lat : "torch") is a bright region seen best near the limb of the Sun where the underlying photosphere appears less bright.

9. The temperature deduced from the spectrum is millions => Kelvin.

10. Specifically, atoms heavier than helium which have lost several electrons are detected. In the corona, hydrogen and helium are present too, but cannot be detected since they have lost all of their electrons.

11. Replacement of the corona in one day produces a loss of about 10 -10 . Sun's mass each year. Haymes' estimate for the loss of solar corona is much higher than the loss expected using measurements of the solar wind flux. One such solar wind measurement cited by Marti et al. would produce a corona loss which is 1/ 10000 the value in Haymes.

12. Compared with the Earth's atmosphere, which at the surface has 1390 times the number of atoms per cubic centimeter as does the Sun's atmosphere at the photosphere.

13. Thus, the Sun, primordially hot, gives out heat as it cools; such a Sun has a life of thousands of years. Then Mayer, in 1848, supposed that the Sun is heated by infalling meteorites. If they did the Sun would gain mass, affecting the size of planetary orbits. For his part, von Helmholtz, in 1854, showed that the Sun could radiate for tens of millions of years if it were contracting slowly. The reader is referred to the following sources for interesting and readable accounts of these mechanisms: Newcombe, Russell et al., 1927; Rudeaux and de Vaucouleurs.

14. Parker argues that a man (with a body temperature of 37į => Celsius) can rub two sticks together to ignite them (producing a fire at several hundred degrees Celsius). He adds that there is no limit to the temperature which can be obtained by so rubbing the sticks. What he fails to recognize is that if the sticks are continuously rubbed together generating heat by friction, they will conduct heat from the region of the friction. This heat will eventually reach the stick-holder's hands. Even if the stick-holder wears asbestos gloves, the wood, which is slowly becoming hotter, will eventually catch fire. On the Sun the photosphere must likewise heat up, unless it is somehow cooled by the warmer regions surrounding it. Such cooling is not spontaneous in nature.

15. The Sun's energy output is 4x10 26 watts. If the arriving electrons have the minimum energy for cosmic rays not modulated by the Sun (see below, p. 18), which is about 100 gigaelectron volts (100 GeV), the in flowing current density at the Sun's photosphere would be 6.5x10 -4 amperes per square meter. This value is a maximum; higher-energy electrons arriving lead to lower values for the electron current density.

16. The flow of the solar wind particles is consistent with a potential barrier located at infinity (Lemaire and Scherer). Moving through the potential, the protons gain energy; as they flow away from the Sun and past the Earth's orbit the protons double their velocity, increasing from 150 kilometers per second in the corona to 320 kilometers per second at the Earth. The electrons' behavior is consistent with electrons being repelled by the distant Galaxy but also being repelled by a nearby Sun carrying an excess negative electrical charge, as was postulated much earlier by Bailey (1960).

17. Zirlin remarks that spacecraft measurements of the solar wind plasma refer to protons, "but considerations of electrical neutrality require that the number of electrons per cubic centimeter equal the number of protons (although the velocities need not necessarily be the same)". Exact => electric neutrality cannot be assumed if the Sun is electrically powered from the outside, and thus we do not know the electron density in the solar wind unless it is measured.

18. At the rate of solar wind flow, a sphere 100 AU in radius could be filled with plasma to 5 protons per cubic centimeter in about 10 000 years. However, moving at 300 km/ s, a proton would travel about ten light years in this time, about 6300 times 100 AU. The material flow would be about 10 17 tons (1/ 35 000 of an Earth).

19. Conventionally, no origin other than "galactic" or "extragalactic" is ascribed to arriving cosmic rays not certainly identified with the Sun (Watson). The paucity of electrons in the cosmic ray flux is unconvincingly explained except by the notion of a star as an electron-deficient cavity in space.


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