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Alfred de Grazia:

PUBLIC & REPUBLIC : Political Representation in America


Part  B


The theory representation goes deep into the nature of man and society. John Dewey: Public and Its Problems (1927) is an excellent introduction to the connections between the community and its public officers. Equal in importance is the masterpiece of Emile Durkheim: On the Division of Labor (2nd French ed., 1902). The philosophy of pluralism is abstractly treated in William James: Essays in Radical Empiricism (1912)and A Pluralistic Universe (1909). Rudolf Smend used the concept of representation as an integrating factor in his political theory, Verfassung und Verfassungsrecht (1928). Charles A. Beard, in his book, The Economic Basis of Politics (1945), considers representation broadly as the ordering of interests in society. Other general works devoting much attention to representation are William C. McLeod: The Origin and History of Politics (1931); Harold F. Gosnell: Democracy: Thresh-old of Freedom (1947); and Karl Loewenstein: Volk und Parlament nach der Staatstheorie der franzosischen Nationalversammlung von 1789 (1922).

The origins of representative government are still subject to detection and dispute. Some of the more pertinent historical studies are Maude V. Clarke: Medieval Representation and Consent (1936); Henry J.Ford: Representative Government (1924); F.P.G. Guizot: Histoire des origines du gouvernement représentatif en Europe (1851); Ernest Barker: The Dominican Order and Convocation (1913), and also "The Origin and Future of Parliament," Edinburgh Review, CCXXXIV (July, 1921), 58; Harold J.Laski et al.: L'Evolution Actuelle du Régime Représentatif (1928); May McKisack: Parliamentary Representation of the English Boroughs During the Middle Ages (1932); F.W. Maitland: Constitutional History of England (1908); Tenney Frank: "Representative Government in Ancient Polities," Classical Journal, XIV (1919), 533, and also "Representative Government in the Macedonian Republics," Classical Philology, IX (1914), 49; Carl Stephenson: "Taxation and Representation in the Middle Ages," Haskins Anniversary Essays (1929), pp. 291 ff.; Otto Hintze: "Weltgeschichtliche Bedingungen der Repräsentativverfassung," in Historische Zeitschrift, CXLIII (1930), I; and Alice M. Holden: "Imperative Mandate in the Spanish Cortes of the Middle Ages," American Political Science Review, XXIV (1930), 886.

An excellent source of continental theory is Otto von Gierke: The Development of Political Theory (1939), Part II, chap. iv; for later English usages see "Representation," Encyclopedia Britannica, XIX (1947 ed.), 163, and Charles A. Beard and J. D. Lewis: "Representative Government in Evolution," American Political Science Review, XVI (1932], 223. Among the best introductions to English ideas and practices of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries are the following works: L.F.Brown: "Ideas of Representation from Elizabeth to Charles II," Journal of Modern History, XI (1939), 23; P.A.Gibbons: Ideas of political Representation in Parliament, 1660-1832 (1914); Edward and Annie G. Porritt: The Unreformed House of Commons, I (1903); G.S. Veitch: The Genesis of Parliamentary Reform (1913); Helen E. Witmer: The Property Qualification of Members of Parliament (1943); and C.B. R. Kent: The English Radicals (1899).

Classic argumentation on representation is to be found in Don M. Wolfe's collection of Leveller Manifestoes of the Puritan Revolution (1944); Thomas Hobbes: Leviathan (1651); John Locke: Of Civil Government (1689); Edmund Burke: Works (10 vols., 1866); and Jeremy Bentham: Plan of Parliamentary Reform (1817).

Colonial ideas and practices are nowhere presented in integrated fashion, but a general impression of them may be pieced together from Perry Miller: The New England Mind (1939); V. L. Parrington: The Colonial Mind (1927); Robert Luce: Legislative Principles (1930); A. M. Schlesinger : The Colonial Merchants and the American Revolution, 1763-1776 (1918); Cortland F. Bishop: History of Election in the American Colonies (1893); A. E. McKinley: The Suffrage Franchise in the Thirteen English Colonies in America (1905); R. G. Adams: Political Ideas of the American Revolution (1922); G. H. Haynes: A History of Representation and Suffrage in Massachusetts, 1620-1696 (1894); J. A. C. Chandler: Representation in Virginia (1896); and M. W. Jernegan: The American Colonies, 1492-1750 (1929).

Ideas of representation during the Constitutional period may be traced through Charles E. Merriam: History of American Political Theories (1913); W. C. Carpenter: Democracy and Representation (1925); the most admirable Farrand edition of the Records of the Federal Convention of 1787 (4 vols., 1937); Jonathan Elliott's edition of The Debates in the Several State Conventions on the Adoption of the Federal Constitution (5 vols., 1836_45); The Federalist Papers of Hamilton, Madison, and Jay; and Andrew C. McLaughlin: "Social Compact and Constitutional Construction," American Historical Review, V (1900), 467.

For the early nineteenth century, a much more elaborate analysis needs to be made of documents - especially letters, minor speeches, and newspapers - to develop the theory of this book. Merriam: American Political Theories, Parrington: The Romantic Revolution in America (1930), and Kirk Porter: The History of Suffrage in the United States (1918) are useful. Eunice M. Schuster: "Native American Anarchism," Smith College Studies in History, XVII a (1931-2), 86, is excellent on one phase of representative theory. So also is B. F. Wright, Jr.: American Interpretations of Natural Law (1931).

Partial glimpses of the career of direct democratic representation in the late nineteenth century and after are afforded by A. B. Hall: Popular Government (1921); Wilfred E. Binkley: American Political Parties: Their Natural History (1943); F. L. Bird and F. M. Ryan: The Recall of Public Officers (1930); Benjamin P. DeWitt: The Progressive Movement (1915); and Chester M. Destler: Essays and Documents on American Radicialism, 1865-1901 (1946). Lindsay Rogers: The Pollsters (1949) is an attack on the direct democratic idea. T. V. Smith: The Legislative Way of Life (1940) is the best statement of the Madisonian theory of representation applied to the peculiar system of direct representation that developed during the nineteenth century.

Enlightened individualism is to be perceived in the writings of John Stuart Mill on Representative Government (1861) and among Mill's American followers, and in A. T. Hadley: Standards of Public Morality (1912). Mill is expertly criticized by J. Hogan: Election and Representation (1945), a work notable in the general theory of representation as well. Again, the study of the enlightened individualist's view of society would lead us into a painstaking investigation of masses of personal documents and newspaper files, and we must regret the inattention of American scholars to the historical sociology of ideas. So far as enlightened individualism has hit on the "pure" executive idea, we may find it operative in the writings of Woodrow Wilson, C. A. Merriam: Systematic Politics (1945), and perceptible in the materials of Dwight Waldo's book, The Administrative State (1948), and the various journals of the efficiency, civil service, and municipal reform movements.

How enlightened individualism affects the theory of proportional representation is to be seen in Walter Bagehot: The English Constitution (1882); F. A. Hermen: Democracy or Anarchy? (1941); G. H. Hallett and G. H. Hoag: Proportional Representation (1937); and Belle Zeller and Hugh Bone: "The Repeal of P. R. in New York City," American political Science Review, XLII (1948), 1127. Interesting phases of P. R. are to be found in Thomas Gilpin's pioneer pamphlet: On the Representation of Minorities of Electors to Act with the Majority of Elected Assemblies (1844), reprinted in the Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 168 (1896), 233, and in J. Francis Fisher: The Degradation of Our Representative System and Its Reform (1863).

Turning to the bibliography of American pluralism one may recommend first Mary P. Follett: The New State (1918) and Creative Experience (1924). Pope Pius XI's encyclical, On Reconstructing the Social Order (1931) is another influential plea for the plural state. Francis W. Coker: "The Technique of the Pluralistic State," American political Science Review, XV (1921), 186, classifies types of pluralism. Robert A. Brady: Business as a System of Power (1943) is a survey of trends towards business representation and corporatism in America and elsewhere. E. Pendleton Herring: Group Representation Before Congress (1929) and Public Administration and the Public Interest (1936) are valuable appraisals of the development of lobbying. See also Donald C. Blaisdell: Economic Power and Political Pressure (1941); J. A. C. Grant: "The Gild Returns to America," Journal of politics, IV (1942), 303; and Arthur N. Holcombe: Government in a Planned Democracy (1934). The legal question of consigning public power to private groups is best treated by Louis Jaffe: "Law Making by Private Groups," Harvard Law Review, LI (1937), 201. On administrative pluralism, Avery Leiserson: Interest Representation in Administrative Regulation (1942) is outstanding.

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