Table of contents

Kalos: What is to be done with our World.
By Alfred de Grazia


PART FIVE: Consensus and Character


Now we must deal with archaic problems that impede our effort to establish Kalos as the main drive of mankind.

Try as men will to discover an eternal rock on which to build their faith in a society, they cannot succeed. Societies are the everchanging emanations and crystallizations of related human minds.

i. No natural law (except within broad limits) governs man.Pleading such laws gets him as far as his rhetorical skills, and the suggestibility of his audience can carry him.

ii. The laws of real societies grow like wild forests; they must be pruned and cut and replanted, but who is to say how?

iii. The Godhead, insofar as It exists, does not order man in detail, but permits him to destroy himself if he will.

iv. Majorities are no less inscrutable and baseless, and therefore are as arbitrary and relative.

v. Naked force and domination are by definition disbelieved in and obeyed only so long as no one else seizes the sword.

vi. No individual person may claim any authority over others, although his own will or rhetoric may win for him such authority de facto.

vii. The charismatic person enchants a mass of people who turn over their intelligence and will to him. "The leader is always right", and the society moves, but who is to tell Buddha from Hitler, Christ from Napoleon? And what is the word for tomorrow?

viii. Tribal ties of blood cannot be stronger than Cain's love for his brother Abel, whom he murdered. And if not tribal bonds, then certainly not occupational or class bonds.

ix. Reason, when it is more than logic, relates to will or belief, which reduce in turn to one or more of the other bases of faith.

Still we hear these claims to fundamental right in millions of words, although few adherents rally a revolution today in their name. They are voices of the "establishment" and of the "wolves of men."1

The Intelligent Act as Moral Act

From viewing this set of moral non-principles, a new guiding principle emerges. Examine them all and it becomes apparent that every type of justification of morals has been a search for an antecedent source. Each search goes back and seeks righteousness in a condition precedent to an action. Natural law, gods, majorities, wills, laws, force, blood-ties, and reason all represent claims to validate and legitimate that originated prior to the policies and actions to be adjudged. In this sense, all references are to tradition, that is, habit. First the authority, then the action-but if the action comes first in actuality, it must still be read backwards so as to justify it by a pre-existing standard: So goes the usual method of thought.

The mental process that occurs often permits a high degree of postactivity rationalization, with its disturbing effects on future actions; whether a land has been devastated or a person betrayed, the perpetrators of the deed rush to the ascribed source for their justification and expiation; those who have suffered from the deed are thus taught to be as hypocritical when their turn comes.

All past ideologies of social consensus have been upon presumed antecedent directives. But "ends... are forever coming into existence as new activities occasion new consequences."2 Kalocracy is to be based upon induction from Future Consequences. I do not read history alone to solve the present problem. Man moves, perceives, adjusts, moralizes, and orders the environment, as the pragmatists say. The futurists push forward the impetus to the original move. Moralizing consists of both the explanation of one's feelings, at the end of one's action, and of the reformulation of a rule of conduct. But the explanation and reformulation have to be in a future-time framework.

Thus achieved, his new future generalization sets the stage for an appropriate and measured authorization of the newly created environment. The environment becomes in actuality the scope, domain, and depth of the law. This is what Kalos, Kalotic personality, and Kalotics are founded upon.

The Kalotic Movement does not beg permission from the past. It does not go like a blinded horse, with its flanks tensed for the spurs and its ears reversed to hear the master. It moves and hunts, searching out the conditions that will permit as many types of humanity as possible to find their happiness in their own way. As some Christians say and believe, "The Mansion of the Lord has many rooms."

We need a philosophy of the future perfect tense. An instrument is required to view consequences from the future backward.Such might be modern science and scientists-philosophers, human scientists and natural scientists. The role of science is to bring forth valid observations of conduct whose effects-direct and indirect, immediate and remote-please us. It is to classify these, and to maximize them by principles of education and governance.

This instrument, science, bears no man's name. As soon as it is called Mar, or Freud, or Gandhi, or Dewey, or any Mr.X, it will not work for Kalocracy. As long as it is the process of learning and applying, focussed upon the wants of mankind, it works well.

Kalocracy is therefore, the enemy of hero-worship and of the establishment, while it is the follower of the human mind working as best it can on problems of the future that people are trying to solve. The "who" of authority are the Kalists, who use the scientific method to attain the major directions set by discoverable human aspirations. The authority is already here in this world. Kalocracy still has to fight for legitimacy. But legitimacy is the acceptance by all peoples of the kalotic way. And it will be accorded when Kalocracy shows that it can achieve kalotic results.

The only authority that is truly kalotic -- which is good and rightly directed for modernity -- is intelligence that is scientifically operational. All other standards of legitimacy are failures at this time and, from what we think that we know today, will always fail to bring Kalos.

Intelligence is not at all what is commonly imagined. The ordinary person, and all too many scientists themselves, think of the world as stable, as unconditioned by mind, as composed of facts that resemble mineral resources, imbedded and waiting for discovery and mining.

Actually it is intelligence itself that is the active, diversifying, and individualizing force which, paradoxically, feels for and generalizes the world.3 then breaks the world apart, and once again puts it together just as a child builds a toy house with his blocks, levels it, and constructs it once more. The world is to be put into kalotic context and kept there, but the building and rebuilding is incessant

What do Men Want

We come to the question specifically of man's wants. Man wants Kalos, the beautiful life, the well-formed and virtuous life. kalos consists of emos (well-being), pneumos (opportunity), and dikeos (justice), joined in a dynamic equilibrium. The acceptance of these wants as goals of Kalotic toparchy and cosmarchy is essential to the design of revolution. Some of the operational content of these ideas has been spelled out earlier and it will be expanded throughout this work.

The Kalotic concepts govern men's thoughts and behavior. These tell them what they are aiming towards domestically and internationally. They are emos, pneumos, and dikeos.

Emos is well-being, the material goods of body and mind, incorporation, identification.

Pneumos is opportunity to develop oneself, to choose, to create. It gives man movement, new experience, the chance to achieve in all spheres. It is the quest for eternal meanings in existence. By holding the past, the present, and the future in the loose bonds of hypothesis and hope, pneumos keeps man human and life tolerably interesting. It enables him to grow beyond his human frame, and to invent and practice relations with gods. It is religiousness.

Dikeos is the balancing of pneumos with emos in law and order. It is everyman's day in court, equality before the law, and assurance of future rights to a complete defense of what he is, what he has made, and what is his own. It is kalotic adjustment.

All of which ideas the Men of the Year One have comprehended and worked with. In consequence, the world is changing. Thus comes Kalos, Kalotic society, the order of life in which the three elemental and necessary conditions are developed and spread.

"Give me matter and motion," said Descartes, "and I will create a world." Yes. In terms of modern physics and Kalos, matter is motion, and motion matter, and the I is the conceiving and adjusting power. Raised to the level of the applied sciences of human affairs, emos is compacted pneumos, pneumos is liberated emos, and dikeos is the kalotic combining of the two, an inseparable mind that both makes and mingles with the other elements.

Plumb matter to its utmost depths. The trilogical dynamism opens to view. All existence retains, seeks, and adjusts. It ingests and incorporates. It quests, moves, changes. It achieves its form by the balance of order and movement. We speak of atmos, rocks, stars, vegetables, and animals. We can speak of man in the same language. We need to do so. The forms are in our minds, and we can understand man and the universe well by this concept.

Political and social man also incorporates his surroundings into himself from his earliest life, in a more or less expanded organism, physiologically and psychologically. He is forever questing in order to incorporate. But which comes first is a nonsensical question; he also incorporates in fulfilment of his quest. The search for the formulas of combining and satisfying the need for ingesting and questing constitutes the third element of need, and corresponds, archtypically and phenotypically to the idea of law as balance and adjustment.

The Kalotic Trilogy moves in a dynamic equilibrium. Vilfredo Pareto generated a large interest in the idea of a society seen as an equilibrium. In it a balance of social forces is maintained; when the balance fails, the system as a whole produces countervailing forces to restore the balance. The theory is old, even ancient, depending for its genealogy upon how consanguineous one wishes to be.4

Kalos, we say, is a moving, social system balanced upon the three nodes of man's physico-psychological drives. The goals are possible futures predicated upon experienced pasts. The experiences and the futures are in man, and this in society. Man is born, lives, and dies in homeostasis, a moving equilibrium.5 The Trilogy works from beginning to end within man and in his interaction with the environment. As Comte wrote, "The living body requires an environment appropriate to it, which cannot vary beyond certain limits in any direction without rendering life impossible."6

And now Arthur koestler: "An organism or society is said to be in dynamic equilibrium if the (Self-Assertive) and (Integrative) tendencies of its holons balance each other."7

Society never dies, for the simple reason that it was never born; it always was. But society can be a hell to the people in it. It is a complicated interplaying of individual systems, where in the three drives are projected, first statistically (unconsciously), then institutionally (mostly unconscious until now), and finally kalotically (aware and controlled). The limits of tolerance are given; but the formulas of Kalos are needed to understand, guide, and control the system. The environment is worldwide, and includes all mankind. The theory and formulas of guidance and control must, therefore, be worldwide and for all men and women.

The kalotic ethic consists then of:

1. The data of consequences of future acts.

2. The authority of intelligence as an actualizing force.

3. The science of consequence and actualization.

4. The trilogy of emos, pneumos, and dikeos-to ingest, quest, and adjust.

5. The dynamic equilibrium of the Kalotic trilogy moving into the ever-unfolding spirit of existence.

Kalos is scientific but not scientoid. it is historically founded (every datum is history) but futurist. It is natural, but is not natural law. It is pragmatic, but idealistic (in the philosophical, not vulgar, sense). It is empirical, but holistic. it is existential, but programmatic.

Classification of Value

Many other ways of classifying basic human needs have been discovered. The closest psychologically is that of Abraham Maslow, who has, in several books, carried on researches to link man's natural behavior to his social drives. "Self-actualizing man" is his concept of, and there need be no caviling over its merger with, the philosophy of Kalos.8

A set of eight values that men strive for is presented by H.D. Lasswell and Abraham kaplan in their book, Power and Society. Their categories are: power, respect, rectitude, safety, wealth, well-being, enlightenment, and affection.

Power, the ability of one man to determine another man's activity, is compounded of emos, in the enjoyment of accumulated power; pneumos, in the search for power; dikeos, in the stabilizing of the effects each has upon the other in the human personality, or the adjustment of the powerful person. Affection is the assurance of the sympathy and love of another person. Emos is love as incorporation and identification with the loved object; pneumos is love as quest for benevolent response, new experience in identifications, sexual excitement. Dikeos is love as charity in the definition of St. Paul, as giving and receiving affection bountifully, as balancing the possession of affection with the experiencing of new and renewed affection.

Similar transpositions may be made with the other values listed. The values in themselves are subjects or topical categories. They are what is substantially being transacted between and within the person. No human being or society has been known to exist without some quotient of each value. On the other hand, the quotients vary greatly between individuals and societies.

What we say is that kalos is the formula for the resolution of values, the shaping of values to give satisfaction to men as individuals and groups. The kalotic philosophy experience its objects-men and groups-and, by the process heretofore described, senses their distribution, their tensions, and their possibilities of adaptation to other affected (and themselves objects of the same process), and proposes the Kalotic organization of the multiform streams of value orientations and drives.

Hadley Cantril,9 in his investigations around the world, proposed also a list of universal human demands upon societies and upon political cultures. These can be referred to the three principles of kalos. One of them is the satisfaction of survival needs (emos). So also, the sense of physical and psychic security (dikeos) to protect one's gain (emos) and to assure a beachhead for further advances (pneumos). (We shall not label his categories further.) He says people want enough order and certainty in their lives to judge with fair accuracy the consequences of their propulsive behavior. They want to know that what they are doing to affect their future will have some effect upon the future.

They want to be able then continuously to enlarge the range and quality of their satisfactions, a kind of unending enlargement of wants. Then, he says, people want hope, not resignation. They want the capacity to make choices and the desire to exercise choices. Cantril finds that people wish to have a sense of their own identity and integrity, a desire for a sense of autonomy. And they want to have a sense of worthwhileness.

Existence is such a shattering business for most people in the world, both in our culture and everywhere else, that they need strongly a sense of dignity. They need to preserve a sense of bodily integrity as well as psychic integrity. People want a belief system to which they can commit themselves, and assurance that their society lends hope of their aspirations being fulfilled.

The kalotic elements dissever and transpose readily all of these desires. What Cantril gives us, as do Lasswell and Kaplan, is help in measuring out certain substances for a more or less universal population, the former more dynamically and psychologically, the latter more statically and behavioristically.

Cantril and his party went into the field in Cuba, Israel, India, Germany, and the united States, and interrogated a cross section of the population, asking people to rate the degree of their satisfaction with their own past, with their present condition, and their future prospects, and then asking them to rate their country along the same lines.

The picture that emerges from the Cantril international surveys indicates, as might be expected, that most of the people in the world are extremely limited in their outlook and merely acquiese to their circumstances. At the extreme from this majority, stand some millions of people who have a well-organized system of beliefs about the world; they have confidence that they know the world, feel assured about their ability to work in the world, and feel also secure in the ability of their country to work in the world.

Other theorists need to be correlated with Kalos. The anthropologist, Bronislaw Malinowski, in an article entitled "The Group and the Individual in Functional Analysis,"10 categorizes "basic needs, instrumental needs, symbolic and integrative needs." Kalos and its three elements are each and all basic, instrumental, symbolic, and integrative, depending upon how they are operationally employed by the acting person. Dikeos, for example, is a person's basic need to be treated as an equal before the laws, it is a means of achieving fair decisions concerning the disposition of all resources; it is a myth and a symbol of the respect and dignity of a person; it binds up a man's personality into a whole; and it adjusts his personality into the group through shared practices and collective representations.

Basic desires are found to be similar in all societies.11 Yet it is not crucial that all classifications of them be rebutted in favor of "the one true" system. Thousands of years of reflections upon the subject, including a century or more of scientific methods, has produced no "true" classification of man's wants. Or to put it another way, many "true" classifications have been invented, each suiting some purposes. Pareto, W.I. Thomas, Montagu, and Erikson,12 as well as Lasswell, Cantril, and Maslow, and many other correct scholars have offered their divisions of human wants. It is proper only to ask of everyone that he reveal how his classification is useful for his purposes, as we intend in this book to use the Kalotic classification for showing the way to a kalotic Revolution and Constitutional Order. We say here in this regard: that classification is best that helps invent those kinds of persons-in-action whom we desire. Mark the plural: kinds of persons-in-action. For there are several ways of life that we admire and wish to create and adjust to each other.

In turn, all classifications of value, including the Trilogy of kalos resolve into at least potential continua of intensity and fulfillment. We must be able to admit the presence of individual and group differences in respect to any given value, and be able also to mark off certain measures of value and say "Let this be our minimal acceptable quota per person" or "This kind of person needs so much of x and so much of y". Cantril shows, for example, considerable differences from one country to another in peoples, expectations about where they and their country as a whole will be five or ten years from now. Once again, it is the task of the revolutionary intelligence to apportion the achievable product within each group according to the character of the group and rules of the Revolution. This work, if it is true to its philosophy, has to supply for the major problems of existence appropriate Kalotic Measures, Formulas, and Methods.

Indicators of the Year 50

By the year 50 of the Kalotic Revolution, the movements from the revolutionary hub towards the rim of the world wheel should have progressed a good distance. Considerable changes in ideology, the government of local bodies (toparchy), cosmarchy, and the character of the governors should have occurred.

In the Year 50 the world's people are moving towards a voluntary unity. This cosmarchy is growing rapidly as local revolutionary conditions interact with international ones.

A Kalotic method of revolution strives to achieve power everywhere. The method is Stressed Democracy, managing a large number of techniques of planned pressures to invigorate or replace the established authorities. As technological change has accelerated rapidly, and uncontrolled social change and violence have speeded up, so the Kalotic techniques are improved and invented to overcome resistances and go into effect in evershorter periods of time.

Indicators are devised. By the Year 50, both those toparchies already embraced by the Kalotic order, and those whose peoples are watching and controverting, have means of distinguishing the new society. They have devised a set of tests to register honestly, empirically, and broadly the fulfillment of Kalotic demands.

There are three sets of indicators. They have been created in the course of the revolution, partly to incorporate, but largely to replace, the zany myriad of indices employed in the early types of social science. Not until the middle of the twentieth century, up to the Year One of Kalotic Cosmarchy, did the irrelevance, superficiality, deceiving quantifications, and materialism of the first age of index measures come to be realized fully, and a system of social accounting devised.13

The tests that are newly put into operation are adapted to a person, for self-appraisal and the appraisal of others, and, for the same reasons, to an association, an agency, a toparchy, and a cosmarchy.


Every man, woman, and child owns a minimum of property that extends his personality in ways that he desires.

All eat and sleep as much as they wish.

All are warm or cool when they wish to be.

All are healthy of mind and body.

Identifications are universal as well as particular; they are affectionate, not hostile.


No one need forego basic and higher education, as he develops his spirit and mind.

Everyone has travelled to two or more cultures if he pleases, solely out of curiosity and pleasure.

The elite is a representative sample of the infants of society.

All express their beliefs without retraint.

No one's religion is official.

The right to teach is guaranteed to everyone.


All have the same rights to resist restraint as the richest and most influential.

All enjoy a rule of law.

All have the right to privacy.

All persons enjoy physical safety.

The principle of the sekwed Kalotic rise has to be observed in practice. It is this: Since the present world distribution of these Kalotic elements is very different, and since the inertia to change varies from place to place, all of mankind will not reach the same level simultaneously. It is therefore the effective policy of world societies to raise all men together.

By the year 50, by contrast with today, higher Kalotic levels have been reached in the first three regions to organize formally into cosmarchy, and in the rest of the world, which will be continuously helped, even before it forms into regions and becomes part of world government. The Kalotic percentages of the population should approximate the following:

THE DESGIN FOR KALOS YEAR 50 (Percentage of Population Enjoying kalos)
Elements of Kalos REGION 1* REGION 2 REGION 3 REST OF of WORLD
Today Year 50 Today Year 50 Today Year 50 Today Year 50
I. Emos1590890565230
II. Pneumos106012601550330
III. Dikeos20501040225110

* A Region contains about 400 million persons. There are ten of them. See Chapter XXXI for definitions of Regions. Region I includes the United States; Region II West-Central Europe; Region III East Orient-Japan down to Australia.

This unprecedented and universal advance will have come from the ethics, science, honest scepticism, and the drive of a half-million Tutors and of a half-billion people of the world who say then as women and men of good will. A revolution was plotted and won. Once the vast process had begun, it gathered momentum speedily from the surging morale of mankind.

1. On the analysis of authority, see Max Weber, The Theory of Social and Economic Organization ((1922; trans. New York: Oxford Press, 1957); Margaret Mead, Soviet Attitudes Towards Authority (New York: McGraw Hill, 1951); Sebastian, de Grazia, The Political Community (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1948), Errors of Psychotherapy (New York: Doubleday, 1952), and "What Authority is Not", 53 American Political Science Review (1959), p. 321; Carl J. Friedrich, ed., Authority (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1958); Fred I. Greenstein, "The Benevolent Leader: Children's Images of Political Authority," 54 American Political Science Review (1960), p. 934; Franz L. Neumann, Behemoth: the Structure and Practice of National Socialism, 1933-1944 (1942; 2nd ed., New York: Octagon Books, 1963); and Robert L. Peabody, "Perceptions of Organizational Authority," 6, Adm. Sci.Q. (1962), p. 463.
2. John Dewey, Human Nature and Conduct (1922; New York: Modern Library, 1930),p. 232; see esp. Dewey's Public and Its Problems (1927; Chicago: Gateway Books, 1946). Cf. A.H. Somjee, The Political Theory of John Dewey (New York: Teachers College Press, 1968).
3. Cf. the first chapters of John Wilson, N. Williams, and B. Sugarman, Introduction to Moral Education (Harmingsford, Eng: Penguin Books, 1967).
4. Cf. Cynthia Eagle Russett, The Concept of Equilibrium in American Social Thought (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1966).
5. Walter B. Cannon, The Wisdom of the Body (New York, 1932).
6. System of Positive Polity, 4 Vols., (London, 1875-77), I, p. 521.
7. The Ghost in the Machine (New York: Macmillan, 1967), p.347 Holons are biological self-regulating open systems with both autonomy of wholes and dependencies of parts. Holons have "the universal characteristic of life" to preserve and assert their individuality (pp. 343-47).
8. Abraham H. Maslow, Towards a Psychology of Being (1962; New York: Harper, 1968) lists a highly important set of 43 propositions. See also his Motivation and Personality (New York: Harper, 1954).
9. Cf. Hadley Cantril, The Pattern of Human Concerns (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1965).
10. XLIV American Journal of Sociology (May, 1939).
11. Cf. George P. Murdock, "The Common Denominator of Cultures," in his culture and Society (Pittsburgh, Pa.:University of Pittsburgh Press, 1965); M. McDougal, "The Comparative Study of Law for policy Purposes: Value Clarification as an Instrument of Democratic World Order," 6: Yale Law Journal (1952), p. 915.
12. V. Pareto, op. cit., W.I. Thomas, The Unadjusted Girl (1923; Boston: Little Brown, 1964); Erik Erikson, Childhood and Society (1950; New York: Norton, 1964); Ashley Montagu, The Direction of Human Development.
13. In the middle Sixties, a number of behavioral scientists, among them Bertram Gross, Raymond Bauer, and Albert Biderman, began a drive to acquaint the American leadership with the necessity for a revolution of statistics to show the true state of society. [Cf. Bauer, ed., Social indicators (Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, 1966). The work of the Yale School Decision Seminar (H.D. Lasswell, et al.) was another important innovation. An area of seminal early controversy was monopoly; see e.g., National industrial Conference Board, Economic Concentration Measures: Uses and Abuses (New York: NICB, 1957), especially the articles of M.A. Adelman and Betty Bock] Even in the United States it was admitted by the government in 1969 that "the Nation has no comprehensive set of statistics reflecting social progress or retrogression. There is no Government procedure for periodic stocktaking of the social health of the Nation." [U.S. department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Toward a Social Report. ((Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1969), p. xi.] Many indicators are presented in the pages of this book; some of them are quantitative, others qualitatively formed, but the attempt is conscientiously made to specify and operationalize the state of things, and the goods sought.


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