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September 1964


If I were a businessman, I would brazen or sneak Dr. Dichter into my inner office twice a year and never mind the pained looks of my professional research staff and their barely concealed sneers.

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In Europe

Write Bill Gumm

Write Charley and Juliette

Write Baroody

Write Karl hell

Write McCune (can write me in Sweden)

There is no use in operating URS from Europe because:

1) Cost difference not great enough

2) Translation costs and trouble

3) Administrative difficulties

4) Possible piracy

5) Training problems:

6) Difficulties with authorities


1) Cheaper labor

2) More security vs. U.S. piracy

3) More sales to European market

4) Might find collaborators helpful.

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For a letter to home:

An Instruction for everyone to keep in practice:

Paul - Speak clearly and loudly enough for all who near to hear.

Vicky - Straighten up your rounded shoulders and add inches to your chest

Jess - Go to bed early so you can use the dawn hours for all that is best in you

John - Fix up my bike so that I can ride it well on my return

Carl - Do not cheat yourself by playing the wrong things while you practice the piano nor play too short a time

Chris - Write a 2-page letter to me

Jill - Nothing. You are perfect.

The Behavioral Sciences in America Today

I. The Structure and Norms of the Sciences

5. How are the Behavioral Sciences Defined

10. Any Common Method (Behaviorism?). Logico-empiricism

10. Where are the strong centers?



10. The changing role of the American professor

- Flight of the illustrious from undergraduate roles

- Social status

- Power and Decision-making

20. The sources of financial support

- Individuals

- Universities (BIG)

- Endowment

- Foundations

- Government agencies

- Non-government agencies

- Results

- Businesses

5. Changing Forms of Publication

- Articles

- Books - monographs - texts

15. [Probs] of Communication -- Information Retrieval.

II. New Substantive Fields (Methodological fields)

10. Merging of interests (e.g. psychology and economic development)

(International Relations & psychology)

(Pol. sociology, culture and science)

(But cf. Space sociology, imprinting in child development.)

e. g.: - Drugs and Behavior Therapy

- Sociometry

- Computer Simulation

- Automated Teaching

10. Applied Political Science and Social Science - Policy Science

Problems of Ideology - Finding Oneself and Ranking priorities

e. g.: Resp. pol. parties


Big government

Materialistic concept of social class

No study of church government.

Lectures Notes at University of Gothenburg, Sweden

I. What is Congress

A. (45 minutes)

1. The large fabric of society - culture - norms - drives - abilities (techniques)

(American 1st way, 2nd way)

The Governmental institutions (broadly defined - economy - taxation -

major associations - churches - unions, etc.)

The Statal institutions -- Congress, presidency, courts, public parties, state and local governments (federalism and home rule)

2. Definition of the republican society

The Republic

Is Sweden a republic?

3. Congress as the centerpiece of the republic.

It can promote republican conditions better than any other institution.

4. Republican conditions

Equality of opportunity (security ?)

Rule of Law

Freedom - privacy - of association and enterprise


Congress should operate to promote =, law, liberty, reverence (open-mindedness to eternity)

5. Other institutions that may promote the same goals or conditions

Educational system


Popular organizations (including parties)

Free enterprise


Free associations (churches, unions, trade associations, welfare groups)

Presidency -- President; Presidency; Bureaucracy (Civil Service)

What is Congress in purely technical terms?

Who are its members?

How do they spend their time?

What do they produce?

What is its value?

What are the constituents of Congress who are active in America

1. As Matters Stand -- the nuclear constituency, the party, the congressional constituency, the presidential constituency (national and international)

2. As the Pressures mount

The Political Parties

Decentralized National ./ State / Local

Unintegrated - President / Congress / Industry

Adjutant - not commanding

Party rationalizes ignorance.

I. What is Congress

II. The President

III. The Executive Establishment

IV. The First Way: Executive Dominion

V. The Second Way: The Republic

1. Has the Congress grown weaker in absolute terms? The answer must be No.

Has it grown weaker in relative terms? -- Yes in relation to:

a) Image

b) President

c) Executive establishment

d) What is expected of it

Powers are Ample

Image is weak

Being undermined by public and other institutions.

2. Is Congress run by an oligarchy?

Speaker, Floor leaders, Committee Chairmen in the House and a looser group in Senate. Also include minority leaders. Also chairmen of committees on appropriation (92 in all out of 535)

Oligarchy in all groups

Never are the members of a legislature true equals even in voting.

-- But Oligarchy is [permissive] in Congress

Oligarchy older (61 to 53)

Seniority not absolute!!! Geography, group support, professional background, need for reelection, interests, etc.

All institutions are led by seniors. Thus leaders will have infirmities of age and young those of youth.

3. Results of Oligarchy and Seniority

a) Organization better

b) Experienced leaders

c) Helps control executive branch

d) Assures minorities' influence

? If seniority system were destroyed by popularity system? What then -- President domination.

No such thing as merit system -- party, president, popularity, seniority but not merit.

There is devotion to the oligarchy.

Other facts -- religions (under Catholics; under Jews; over Baptists; over Methodists

Occupations (lawyers)

Rural - Urban Senate 60% while country is 70%

House 58% vs. 70%


4. The System of Successive Majorities p. 152

Stabilizing, pluralistic, powerful, representative

5. The Intelligence Function

e. g. The Poverty Act of 1964

6. Controls of the Executive







7. Myths of the President

a) Individuality (1500 persons)

b) Determinative on all ?s

c) Personal superiority

d) Executes the law

(Actually Congress and Agency Bureaucrats)

The Law of Agency is marvelous fiction

Pres. = office whose head knows and decides

knows and does not decide

doesn't know and doesn't decide (most common)

The Shell Game

e) Pres. = majority champion . Woodrow Wilson theory

f) Pres. = minority champion

g) Pres. = advocate of total interest, "national", "public"

but cf. (f) above and "successive majorities" principle in Congress

h) Pres. makes laws and has initiative

but Chamberlain study -- pp. 75-77; 1890 to 1940 (90 laws)

20% President

40% Congress

30% Joint

10% Lobbies

i) Responsibility - Pass the Buck

j) Coordination, integration, efficiency. See 10 items further on pp. 81-2

k) Planning, Program

l) Speed in crisis, Decisiveness (Cuba?) (Vietnam?)

m) Pres. has crushing burden (Ike recovered from a heart attack completely

while in office

What does it all add up to? = If you like what President is doing, and he does what you want, he is all of above. If you need father figure he is also.

III 1045 - 11 Questions

The Executive Force

115-925 I. Ultimate dominance of the Executive Bureaucracy

- Is fed by decline of federalism and localism

- Centralizing of government

- Assumption of authority (sometimes supported by courts)

- Fed by President

But nothing goes out !!

925-930 II. Cultivation by the Bureaucracy of the Cult of Personality. It needs the President to personify.

930-40 III. Size of the Civil Service - all government employees in U.S. = 11 million persons. One out of 7. In Federal government 2.5 million (1940 - 64 = 150%). If same growth continued, 12 millions by 1984.

1798-1948 Federal spending for civil purposes $7 billions

1948-1964 Federal spending for civil purposes $46 billions

At this rate, all income and product would be through government.

940-950 IV. How activities start (p. 107)

Reasons given for new activities (p. 108)

950-10 V. THE NEW PROPERTY 1/3 to population has enough immediate economic-social-political interest in the executive state to support and vote its policies most of time.


1015-1025 VI. Personality of the official (pp. 114-15)

Lofty Ideal


Adept at working in rules

Educated, etc. cf. businessmen

Cf. CONGRESSMEN - single truth vs. compromise

1025-1030 VII. Is there an objective distinct between politics and administration?

1030-1035 VIII. The bad effects of the military administrative model

1035-1040 IX. Secrecy drive of bureaucracy (President has always been villain. Fight for access of Congress.

1040-1045 X. The Drive of Executive Force towards substitute representative government. How to make bureaucracy representative (p. 130). Final need for CONGRESS.


Program of Executive Control

2 Models of Reform proposals = Executive Society is ultimate

Republican Society is ultimate

Executive Formula

I. Constituency and Party

1. Universal but disconnected constituency

2. Loosen community and state moorings of constituency

3. Vote fully the new electorate

4. Give note to D. C. citizens

5. Stronger national party organization (centralized and integrated parties)

Strong party directorate

6. Inside Congress suppress intra-party factionalism

II. Reforms of Congressional procedures

7. Tighter Budget clearances of new bills

8. Individual item veto in appropriate bills

9. Suppress the filibuster

10. Synchronize terms of office

11. Let President's leaders in Congress be able to force a vote on his measures

12. Let President's leaders name committees [members? numbers?]

13. Tight "Conflict of Interest" laws

III. Reforms of Presidency

14. Let President run for 3 + terms

15. Let President have absolute power to restrict congressional access to documents

16. Extend civil service even further (vs. local appointments)

17. Extend powers to "reorganize" government for "efficiency" 18. Do not give GAO power to prevent spending

19. Elevate bureaucracy to legislative status.

All = "adequate" "modern" "efficient" Congress, i. e. a tool of Executive domination of society.


Republican Society

I. History

The adverse society

II. Government by Presidential dictatorship

-- Freedom Boss

-- Trustee of the People


III. Republican Government

On Sweden

1. Walking in Gothenburg

2. The Inner country and the Seashore

3. The Swedish student (the Negro and his American nature or American and his Negro nature)

4. Swedish food

5. Zombies, abstracted poets, bewitched, dumb ??

6. Music, painting, Salvation Army bards

7. Chicago in the [races] - street scenes, much of dress, houses, furnishings, social ways e. g. dancing.

8. My early progression of external culture (outside nuclear family of Father/mother/brother) first attended then lonely play in park.

a, The villers (union flag)

b. Uncle Bill, Aunt Lit, Howard

c. The Eriksons

d. Schoolmates ("Fresh air School")

e. Jackie Loey

f. The layer environment - dim but not hostile. Aparo family -- Milton Avenue -- the park gangs

g. The rude awakening -- 12-years old and the new school.

A Congress of Republican Principles

Constituency Reforms

1. Reporting to public

2. Halls of Congress

3. National Civil Service: Peace Corps, Domestic Peace Corps (why not Civic)

4. More personal followers

5. Apportionment by Communities and under legislative control

6. Tests of persons serving on advisory groups in government to determine their "republicanism"

Reforms of the Party

7. Let party cover up ignorance and give a pairing function but don't give it more powers

Reforms of the Presidency

8. Limit terms to 1 6-years

9. Recuperate emergency powers still out

10. Develop an annual Congressional message.

Reform of Courts

11. Court of the Union for Federal issues

12. Limit review of political questions

Reform of Congress

13. Congressional academies in the States

14. Greater attention to freshmen Congressmen

15. Expand research services

16. Found Social and Behavioral Science Institute for policy research

17. Inventory of Freedom and Restrictions

18. Sanctions Institute

19. Minority staffing

20. Germaneness (but difficult)

21. Collective planning by oligarchy (leadership) of Congress

Reforms of Executive Establishment

22. Legislation to get access to information

23. Congressional Tribunes (destatalizing reports)

24. Sub-Legislative Corps

25. Agents of Congress Office (like GAO) (Like Ombudsman)

Five-Year Term for President

Gay, Raymond

Representative Government

1. The Idea of mechanism and control over mechanism: institution as action series (habits)

- unstated

- formalized

2. Typical institutions of Representative government

a. Suffrage [affirm] of the public

b. elections - apportionment - candidacy - ballot methods - counting

c. Parties, pressure groups

d. Control of society by legislature

e. Representative government in industry, universities, clubs, unions, local governments and voluntary associations.

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